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Criminology-Forensic investigation.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Andrew Welsh

Forensic investigation Basis of evidence - Locard's principle of exchange - Whenever two objects come into contact with one another, there is an exchange of materials between them - all evidence is transfer evidence Physical evidence - Class characteristics - Characteristics of a piece of evidence that place it with a particular group, but not with a unique source. - They establish similarity - Individual characteristics - Those characteristics that may distinguish the evidence from other evidence of the same group or class. Firearms Identification - Structural variations and irregularities caused by scratches,nicks,breaks,and wear may permit the criminalist to relate : - A bullet to a gun - A scratch or abrasion mark to a single tool - A tire track to a particular automobile - Basis of identification - Gun barrel markings : - A harder object marks a softer one and imparts/transfers its microscopic irregularity to that object - Class and individual characteristics - The rifling process - The manufacture of a barrel requires impressing its inner surface with spiral grooves, a step known as rifling. - Grooves, lands, calibre - Each will have the same : number of lands and grooves, the same approximate width and direction of twist. Gun Barrel Markings - Striations - Fine lines found in the interior of the barrel - It is the inner surface of the barrel of a gun that leaves it striation markings on a bullet passing through it - individual characteristic - comparison microscope First Responder : arriving at the crime scene -Basics of the first responder's duties are to : -Emergency care and immediate safety - Arrest the suspect ; search for or apprehend any suspects still on the scene or in the vicinity - assist the victim - direct médical personnel - Remove and detain witnesses from the scene - Initial securing of the crime scene - Establishing the crime scene perimeter - Boundaries of the scene are determined - Establishing initial crime scene security - Crime scene walk-through - determine path of contamination - Determine focal points - places where offences was actually committed - likely to yield most relevant evidence - Crime scene processing strategy Crime scene Investigator : duties and responsibilities - Establishing crime scene security - Multi-level crime scene security - Le
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