October 10, 2012
Week 5, Wednesday
midterm: oct 17 during class.
Study guide online
learning to associate stimuli such that a formerly neutral stimulus comes to produce a response that was
originally produced only by another stimulus.
• Form of inactive associational learning
• ivan pavlov 1923
• pavlov's dog
neutral stimulus (bell)
Does not trigger responses.
Unconditioned stimulus (food)
unconditioned response (salivation)
Neutral, unlearned reflex.
Conditioned stimulus (bell)
take the bell and condition it, and salivation becomes a learned response.
Acomplex mix of emotional and cognitive mechanisms
Acquired by internalizing the moral rules of our social group in the ongoing socialization process.
Recall- Autonomic Nervous System
Some people easily aroused (anxious) others not (fearless)
classical conditioning and conscience:
People with a readily arousedANS are easily socialized- they learn their moral lessons well
People with relatively unresponsiveANS aer difficult to condition and are relatively fearless. Do not
learn to pair discomfort and rule-breaking.
Conditioning and anti social behaviour
Sexual deviance- voyeurism
Sexual gratification from observing unsuspecting others naked, undressing, or engaging in sexual
B.F Skinner, 1938
Type of learning in which behaviour is influenced by it's consequences.
Organism actively operates on it's environment, emitting responses to trigger certain consequences.
Subsequent behaviour strengthened if followed by reinforcement, diminished if followed by
punishment. Two types of consequences
Rewarding, or aversive/noxious
Two actions can be taken with these stimuli:
Can beADDED to the learners environment.
Can be SUBTRACTED from the learner's environment.
Increases the strength (probability) of future responding.
Positive reinforcement: gain reward as a consequence.
Negative reinforcement: removal avoidance of an unpleasant event as a consequence.
BOTHARE GOOD according to Skinner.
Child wants candy at grocery store checkout, temper tantrum, parent gives candy (reward), and
behaviour occurs again during next trip to market.
Schedule of reinforcement:
Two basic schedules:
The behaviour is reinforced EVERY TIME it occurs.
Only some responses ar