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Wilfrid Laurier University
Jennifer Lavoie

Psychology November 21, 2012 Week 11, Weds Theories of Sexual Offending Potential Causes: 1) Deviant Sexual Preferences 2) Cognitive Distortions 3) Intimacy Deviants “Deviant Sexual Preference Hypothesis” Men who engage in sexually deviant behaviour do so because they prefer them to social acceptable behaviour E.g paraphilias Paraphilia: (DSM-IV-TR) Recurrent intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges or behaviours Generaelly around children, or non consenting persons, the suffering or humiliation of oneself or others or non human object. E.g pedophilia, Hebophilia, Exhibitionism Frotteurism, Voyeurism, Sadism Forms of Behavioural Learning: Classical Conditioning - Acquisition of deviant preferences - Pairing of sexually arousing physiological state and deviant stimuli - Deviatn stimulit: circumstantial (time/place where masturbation/intercourse takes place), Deliberat (sexual fantasy involving force, fetishes), Neutral Stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus - Sexual Arousal: - Unconditioned response becomes conditioned response. Forms of Behavioural Learning: Operant Conditioning Maintenance of deviant preferences Positive reinforcement (masturbation) Sexual Deviation Theory: Mcguire et al. (1965) Hypothesis: Sexual deviation as a conditioned behaviour Role of precipitating incident: An inappropriate early sexual experience -first real experience Strong salience, supplies initial fantasy for later reinforcement Can be deviant Role of conditioning: Masturbaton to deviant fantasy (derived from a real sexual experience) Positive reinforcement Arousal to non deviant stimuli (e.g fantasy of having consensual se with an appropriate other) becomes extinguished due to lack of masturbatory reinforcement Sexual Deviation Theory: Soecific Predictions: Any deviation can be acquired Any deviation can be extinguished by re-conditioning Deviant interest is not extinguished by guilt (distal influence) A person who has acquired a deviant sexual interest is likely to acquire other deviant interests The Role of Fantasy: is incredibly essential to understanding how sex offenders work/develop Why is fantasy important? 1) Sustains pleasure (through memory) when pairing it with masturbation 2) It decreases behavioural inhibitions by releasing sexual tension 3) It stimulate grandiosity, since all fantasies are perfect 4) It stimulate omnipotence (feelings of power, all powerful) 5) Allows the perpetrator to practice his paraphilia Application: Pornography Pornography- depictions of sexual contact when one of the participants is portrayed as powerless or non consenting, or is little more than an object. Does porn cause sexual violence? Seto et al. 2001 Little support for a direct causal link Specific conditions may facilitate violence 1) Level of arousal elicited by pornographic materials 2) Level of aggressive content 3) The reaction of victims portrayed in pornographic materials Levels of arousal and aggression Anything that increases arousal level of an already aroused individual will increase aggressive behaviour in situation where aggression i
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