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CS101 Lecture Notes - Torstar, Bourgeoisie

Communication Studies
Course Code
Carolyn Ensley

of 4
Communications October 8, 2013
- Journalism is huge
- Not very huge in Canada
- Historical: CDN newspapers are recent (1760) - we are lucky to have
- Ex. India 35,000 newspapers
- 3 Periods of Journalism
1. Gov’t News (Transplant Period) 1750-1800
- News from UK (Royal News)
2. Nation Building (Partisan Period)
- Local Gov’t issues discussed
- People in CDN launching newspapers, for CDN based on political party/
- Ex. Waterloo - Farmers Print (1800-1860s)
- Newspapers were more oriented towards farming for example (for
Farmers Print
3. Contemporary Era
- General newspaper for their own area
- Convergence and Conglomeration
- News is the content of journalism
- People end up with narrative stories in news, seems to be the current style.
- No two sides to the story.
How do we think about how they define what gets in the newspapers?
7 Elements
1. Timeliness
- Newspapers don’t like old news
- immediate
- recent, the more recent the better.
2. Impact
- How much the event affects people.
3. Prominence
- If something is more prominent it is considered more newsworthy.
4. Proximity
- How close is the event physically, emotionally, and culturally.
Communications October 8, 2013
5. Conflict
- Where you have at least two sides of every story
- Where we can have people commit to one side or the other.
6. Peculiarity
- If it is odd enough to catch your attention
- Ex. two headed dog.
7. Currency
- Objects of attention, stay objects of attention
- Gives us a concept of news value
- not solely generate by these
- Generated by local culture is interested in as well.
- Topical relationships within news, specialty sections (autos, etc.)
Deciding what is news is subjective
- There is a flow of news generation that starts with:
- reporters or stringers
- provide to news providers, public relations, who have contacts within news
production facilities,
- Then choose which of these stories will get published.
- News Agencies redistributes news, therefore they authenticate it as real news
- Gate keeping choose where they go.
- Choosing who gets paid to generate news
- Assignment editors: getting story you aren’t interested in, will it be good or bad?
- How is it effected that they will effect the journalistic practice.
- Wire editors: very powerful, generally that is the news that gets pulled into the papers
- Gate watchers: Looking for media types that fit your need, how the information is presented to
- Newspapers Of Record: where reports are most valid and true (Ex. NYT, TORSTAR)
- Tabloids are most common.
- Access to news is filtered
- Some reality is influenced by editors and journalists
- they frame it, may not meet our expectations
- News Orgs
- Can’t cover stories from every angle
Communications October 8, 2013
Journalism Ideals
Try to seek truth
- Truth representing
- Provide information, responsible to inform citizenship
1. Clergy
- Priests, etc.
2. Nobility
3. Workers and Bourgeoisie
4. Press
5. You on the internet
1689: Bill of Rights (Britain)
- Journalists could not talk about parliament
1771: Right to report on proceedings,
1803 - was when it was legal to report on proceedings
- Politics of Gov’t related to the press
- if you were political and not objective you were in a problematic position
- Wanted a report where people could not blame you.
- 1880-1920: Objectivity and independence standard occurred
- Fact of history, not objective
Transition from political oriented newspapers (1860s)
- generated the transitions to objectivity and independence.
- Rise of mass media
- Went from small presses for local groups of political parties
- wars arose
- today, neutral and objective, and independent of the things going on.
- Journalists are rarely objective and independent
- C. Wright Mills:
- Problem we have in hypo-mediated: We live in second hand worlds
- Taught to consume someone else’s generated opinions, second hand ideas, think
second hand news, we rarely get outside of the second hand world.
- Who are the first hand?
- 10,000 journalists in CDN, fluctuates.
- young, middle-class, mostly males, and white (huge majority)
- who contemporary journalists are.
- 30% newspapers
- 27% radio
- 22% tv
- 18% weeklies