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Environmental Studies
Jim Mc Cutcheon

Oxygen has steadily increased in Earth’s atmosphere • Increase in atmospheric oxygen has been largely unidirectional. • The atmosphere of early Earth probably contained little or no free oxygen gas. • The increase in atmospheric oxygen came in two big steps; the first step occurred 2.4 billion years ago, when certain bacteria evolved the ability to use water as the source of hydrogen ions for photosynthesis. • One group of oxygen-generating bacteria, cyanobacteria, formed rocklike structures called stromatolites. • Cyanobacteria liberated enough O to 2pen the way for the evolution of oxidation reactions as the energy source for the synthesis of ATP. • When it first appeared, oxygen was poisonous to anaerobic prokaryotes that inhabited Earth. • Those prokaryotes evolved the ability to metabolize O surv2ved and gained numerous advantages: aerobic respiration proceeds at more rapid rates and harvests energy more efficiently. • An atmosphere rich in O al2o made possible larger cells and more complex organisms. • In contrast to this largely unidirectional change in atmospheric O 2 concentration, most physical conditions on Earth have oscillated in response to the planet’s internal processes. Earth’s climate has shifted between hot/humid and cold/dry conditions • Earth’s climate was considerably warmer than it is today, and temperatures decreased more gradually towards the poles. • At other times, Earth was colder than it is today; large areas were covered with glaciers during the end of the Precambrian and during parts of the Carboniferous and Permian periods. • For Earth to be in a cold, dry state, atmospheric CO le2els had to have been unusually low. Volcanoes have occasionally changed the history of life • A few very large volcanic eruptions have had major consequences for life. • The collision of continents during the Permian period (275 mya) to form a single, gigantic land mass, Pangaea, caused massive volcanic eruptions. • The ash ejected by volcanoes into the atmosphere reduced the penetration of sunlight to Earth’s surface, lowering temperatures, reducing photosynthesis, and triggering massive glaciations. Extraterrestrial events have triggered changes on Earth • A meteorite caused or contributed to a mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous period (65 mya). o The first clue came from abnormally high concentrations of the element iridium in a thin layer separating rocks deposited during the Cretaceous from those deposited during the Tertiary. o Iridium is abundant in some meteorites; rare on Earth’s surfaces. 21.3 What Are the Major Events in Life’s History? • Life first evolved on Earth about 3.8 billion years ago. • By about 1.5 billion years ago, eukaryotic organisms had evolved. • The fossil record of organisms that lived prior to 550 million year ago is fragmentary; good enough to show that the total number of species and individuals increased dramatically in late Precambrian times. Several processes contribute to the paucity of fossils • Only a tiny fraction of organisms ever become fossils. • Most organisms live and die in oxygen-rich environments in which they quickly decompose • They are not likely to become fossils unless moved to an unoxygenated region; most fossils are destroyed by geological process that transforms rocks. • Many fossil-bearing rocks are deeply buried and inaccessible. • Number of known fossils is especially large for marine animals that had hard skeletons. • Insects and spiders are also relatively well represented in the fossil record. • The fossil record (incomplete) is good enough to demonstrate clearly that organisms of particular types are found in rocks of specific ages and that new organisms appear sequentially in younger rocks. Precambrian life was small and aquatic • Life was confined to oceans and all organisms were small. • Over the Precambrian the shallow seas slowly began to teem with life. • For most of the Precambrian, life consisted of microscopic prokaryotes (eukaryotes evolved 2/3 of the way through the era). • Unicellular eukaryotes and small multicellular animals fed on floating photosynthetic microorganisms. • Small floating organisms, plankton, were eaten by slightly large animals. • Other animals ingested sediments on the seafloor and digested the remains of organisms within them. • By late Precambrian, many kinds of multicellular soft-bodied animals had evolved. Life expanded rapidly during the Cambrian period • Cambrian period (452-488 mya) marks the beginning of the Palaeozoic era. • The O 2oncentration was approaching its current level; the continents had come together to form several large land masses. • The largest, Gondwana . • A rapid diversification of life took place  Cambrian explosion. • Most of the major groups of animals that have species living today appeared during this period. • THE ORDOVICIAN (488-444 MYA) o The continents, located primarily in the S. Hemisphere, still lacked multicellular plants. o Evolutionary radiation of marine organisms during early stages. o At the end, massive glaciers formed over Gondawa, sea levels were lowered about 50 meters, and ocean temperatures dropped. o About 75% percent of the animal species became extinct, probably because of these major environmental changes. • SILURIAN (444-416 MYA) o Northernmost continents coalesced, but the general positions did not change much. o Marine life rebounded o Animals able to swim and feed above the ocean bottom appeared for the first time. o No new major groups of marine life evolved. o The tropical sea was uninterrupted by land barriers o Most marine organisms were widely distributed. o First vascular plants appeared late in Silurian period; less than 50cm tall and lacked roots and leaves. o First terrestrial arthropods appeared at about the same time. • DEVONIAN (416-359 MYA) o Rates of evolutionary change accelerated. o The northern land mass (Laurasia) and the southern land mass (Gondwana) moved slowly toward each other. o Great evolutionary radiations of coral and shelled squid like cephalopods. o Fishes diversified as jawed forms replaced jawless ones and less rigid outer covering of modern fishes evolved. o All current major groups of fishes were present by the end of the period. o Terrestrial communities also changed dramatically; club mosses, horsetails, and tree ferns became common. o Their deep roots accelerated the weathering of rocks, resulting in the development of the first forest soils. o Ancestors of gymnosperms, first plants to produce seeds, appeared later in the era. o Extinction of about 75 percent of all marine species marked the end of this era. • THE CARBONIFEROUS (359-297 MYA) o Large glaciers formed over high-latitude Gondwana, but extensive swamp forests grew on the tropical continents. o Dominated by giant tree ferns and horsetails with small leaves. o Fossilized rema
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