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ES102 Week 10, Lecture 1.docx

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Environmental Studies
Robert Mc Leman

Environmental Studies Week 10, Lecture 1 Irish Famine  1845-1848 approx. 1 million in Ireland died from hunger and related illness during the Great Famine  1846-1851 approx. 1 million migrated out of Ireland  23 previous outbreaks of starvation since 1739 Oliver Cromwell  Hero in England, a key play in English civil wars of 1640s that led to killing of King Charles 1 and establishment of rule by parliament, he led the invasion of Ireland that killed tens of thousands of civilians, sold thousands more into slavery and confiscated the land and gave it to wealthy Englishmen  Despised by Irish Colonization of Ireland  16th century land confiscations by English  Best lands are taken over by English landlords  Land speculation  Capitalist agricultural production develops  Commercial livestock production for export Native Irish are Impoverished  Land productivity in Ireland decreases from east to west in Ireland  Native Irish get pushed westward  Native Irish become tenants, farm labourers  Native Irish subsistence agriculture economy exists alongside capitalist agricultural economy Rural Class System  Landlords collected rent from tenant farmers  Rent money remitted to city  Farmers sold hogs, grain for cash to pay rent; subsisted on potatoes  Landless labourers went hungry Aug-Sept.  Many went to UK for seasonal work during hungry months Rural Population Growth  At time of colonization the potato is introduced to Ireland  Potatoes are highly nutritious  Traditionally high birth rate; potato helps reduce death
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