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Lecture 4

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Environmental Studies
Rob Milne

Social-Ecological Systems Week 4, Lecture 1: Park Systems *Midterm in Theatre Auditorium 24 October (more content focused on lesson notes) Content  Changing philosophies  Preservation of species MVP-genetics  Greater Park ecosystem  Recreation- wilderness  Economics- protection-poaching  Biosphere reserve e.g. Wolf –Algonquin **Greatest conservation attention given to Park Management In the 1960’s the Environmental Movement began! In the early 1960’s Rachel Carson’s book “Silent Springs” was released that triggered the environmental movement. The book was focused on the danger of DDT, and ozone depletion. Parks Wildlife Management  Species at risk  Large carnivores or keystone species  Calculate smallest size of park- reserve, support minimum number of individuals- self-sustaining population  Determine most space-demanding species,- cover all species  Genetic and population demography In Canada COSWIC determines what species are put on the SARA (Species at Risk Act)  SARA was developed 5-6 years ago SARA clause specifies that the species, AND the habitat is protected (if an at-risk bird is living on farmland, that land is now protected and must not be disturbed) Island Biogeography **When determining where to have a park, the distribution, things to look at include:  Ecological surrounded by water or unsuitable habitat site (does not have to be literally an island)  Small islands support smaller number of species  10x increase in size- 2x increase in species The further away from the shoreline, the diversity of species decreases. Closer to the shoreline there is more diversity. Colonization is more rapid the closer you are to the mainland, hence more diversity. The further away from the shoreline, less species can migrate to it, so the animals on the further island are more likely to experience extinction. Smaller island, far from shoreline= BAD (low colonization, high extinction rate) Larger island, close to shoreline= GOOD (high colonization, very diverse) Management of Island Biogeography Survival  Equilibrium between species immigration and extinction Factors  Size and distance to colonizing source  Optimum park size and pattern  SLOSS debate (Single Large or Several Small)  One large better than number of small one  Number close together better than spread out SLOSS debate, do you keep the little parks and manage them, or do you buy all the surrounding land and create one large park. Benefits of Large Park Benefits of Small Parks More biodiversity Allows movements between parks Less fragmentation Genetic diversity Smaller extinction rate Reduced danger of ‘weak’ s
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