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ES293 Week 12.docx

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Environmental Studies
Rob Milne

Social-Ecological Systems Week 12, Lecture 1: Ecological Economics **Review for Exam on Thursday, similar format to midterm  Start from hunting lectures (primarily material after midterm)  Know what systems are and big concepts Ecological Economics Ecological Economics- Private Land Conservation  Strengthen by integrating private with domestic institutions  Overcome issues with sovereignty and protectionism  Developed countries- develop incentives for private landowners to adopt environmental strategies o Taxes/subsidies- easements  Finding to be better than fines, people more positive o Better than fines- avoid payment Looking from economic view that preservation takes place in the world International Policy  At world scale- difficult to achieve collective action- either through economic forces or through governance  Need for international regulatory organizations and agreements  Issues o Who pays opportunity costs? To create environmental havens? o International rules- conservation Chapter 9 goes through the pro’s and con’s in more detail! Looking at countries that don’t adhere to global law (like Japan and whaling conservation), that country will exploit the resources- by creating regulatory organizations and agreements (like Kyoto, Copenhagen, Montreal Protocol) it is international protocols. Telling countries that they can’t cut down the Amazon, there has to be some benefit to them or why would they buy into a policy that will restrict their economy. Biodiversity- Rio  Costs for implementation- developed countries  Biodiversity issues in developing countries- limited cash flows  External financing to compensate for economic-limited cash flows  External financing to compensate for economic loss  Developed countries work with developing nations during early development- avoid environmental problems  Design development plans that work with country’s resources- not necessarily follow developed strategies  Need to create long-term stability for funding rather than short-term handouts Biodiversity is much richer in tropical areas- such as Rio. Yet, these countries with rich biodiversity are more commonly developing countries that already have debt. International Policies- Successes  RAMSAR- Convention on wetlands of International Importance; Waterfowl Habitat o Focus on migratory waterfowl- shared boundaries and resources- lakes, rivers o Incentives for developing countries to protect habitat  Montreal Protocol o Reduction of CFC’S o Successful! o Direct health risks o Cheap substitutes o Zone of cause and consequences overlap  Kyoto Protocol- con
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