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Module 3_Textbook Notes.docx

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Environmental Studies
David Morris

Module 3ES295OC Module 3Chapter 4 Ecological Impact 44 Ecological Costs Activities that directly cause negative impacts 3 categoriesbuilding generation of wastes and tourist activities 441 Direct CostsImpact of building and generation of wastes o Removal of vegetation site leveling and water flow disruptionImpact can be minimized but still unavoidable from building ecolodges viewing platforms trails access roads and parking facilitieso Introduction of weeds and insect pests through nonlocal building materialsnondeliberate problems o High risk of groundwater contamination postconstruction if waste facilities are not carefully constructed Tourist activitieso Hard tourists penetrate deeply into the relatively undisturbed areaso Soft tourists cause wildlife stress and introduction of diffusion of exotic specieso Tourists are often drawn to the rarest megaflora and megafauna that are least able to cope with attention negative humanwildlife encounter o Tourist activity 1 Wildlife Even observation can have negative consequences for the target species Animals heart rates increase when humans approach them as well as reduced feeding time and time wasted standing watching the humans instead of foraging and relaxing Proactive adaptation can also occur ie female grizzly bears learned to remain near ecotourists in order to discourage the approach of adult male bears who harass the females and their cubsDistance between ecotourists and target wildlife is the main factor influencing stress increased proximityincreased stress responseProblem is that satisfaction of ecotourists increases as access to wildlife increases Many other factors to consider for any given ecotouristwildlife encounter
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