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Video and Module 4 Textbook.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Environmental Studies
David Morris

Global Tourism Video 1. How do they promote their market? 1. Exotic, but safe 2. Image of Hawaii shaped by a radio show, ‘Hawaii Calls’ 2. In the video, what did some of the locals feel were the problems from this type of tourism? 1. Building what tourists would like, and not what the natives like 2. People are getting the wrong impression of Hawaii (e.g. Hula shows) 3. Exploitation of native traditions just for money 3. What impact has Hawaii had on tourism on other islands? 1. Tourist destinations have been modeled after Hawaii and its tropical ambiance 2. Natives don’t like what tourism does to them or the tourists 3. People are coming for the ‘Las Vegas’ image 4. Tourism can threaten the very thing that tourists want to experience 4. In the example from Penang , what did they mean by ‘niche marketing'? 1. Designing hotels to fit into a particular niche 2. Penang’s neighboring island, Langkawi, is a new extension of tropical destinations and is targeting a much more selective market…far away from the land of mass tourism 5. What was the resort The Datai doing to promote ecotourism? 1. ‘Get away from it all’ amenities 2. Environmental aspects taken into account, hardly any trees were cut down 3. Targeting lucrative southeast Asian market 4. Quiet and in tune with nature and surroundings 5. Controlled development, low-rise, strict pollution controls (e.g. water pollution…self-contained facilities) 6. What impacts was the local community experiencing from development for tourism? 1. People were forced to leave the island in search for work, so golf courses and resorts could be made 2. Local people often lose out against global capital 7. They described tourism in Borneo as the frontier of tourism – what were they referring to? 1. Home of headhunters on the brink of becoming a mainstream spot for tourism 2. A few years ago, only independent travelers visited Borneo, but recently small local operators have begun pioneer trips into the interior for more adventurous tourism this is the frontier 8. What are some of the fears regarding ecotourism on Borneo ? 1. Borneo used to be very remote and the consequences are on the local culture 2. Fear of not passing down information from grandparents to younger generations 3. Danger of cultural voyeurism 9. Finally what changes are occurring in ecotourism in Hawaii ? 1. Native Hawaiians set up a new ecotourism industry that is more sensitive to the culture and land 2. Less taking and more giving 3. Educated Hawaiian community and families work with government 4. Teach children to bring back authentic tourist prosperity 5. A need for an industry that supports the culture, that provides for its people on an economic base and promotes the preservation and continuance of the culture 6. If you lose the Hawaiian culture, you lose the industry Introduction (5.1) - Minimize ecological costs and maximize benefits - Ideally ecotourism should facilitate the wellbeing and satisfaction of visitors - Focus is on direct and indirect costs and benefits socioculturally Economic Benefits (5.2) - Direct benefits (5.2.1) o Generates revenue and employment  Ecotourism involved visitor expenditures and the creation of employment specific to that sector  E.g. Great Barrier Reef in Australia is more interested in bringing in revenue from outside the country than circulating it through Australia (no new net wealth this way)  Ecotourism related employment can have a major positive effect on small communities even if the number of jobs appears to be small from the perspective of a large destination o Economic opportunities for peripheral regions  In economically depressed destinations, such as Tasmania, where the traditional mainstays of logging and mining are declining due to resource depletion, depressed commodity prices and pressure from the environmental lobby, ecotourism is being promoted as a viable development alternative - Indirect benefits (5.2.2) o High multiplier effect and indirect revenue and employment  Multiplier effect – a measure of ongoing indirect economic benefits accruing to a destination through the internal circulation of direct tourist expenditure  Most calculations of economic benefit in ecotourism research use such techniques as input/output (IO) modeling that take into account the indirect and reduced consequences of the multiplier effect  Indirect effects = hotel uses tourist expenditures to purchase local food or pay its employees, then when the recipients of this income do the same and so on  Induced effects = the goods and services purchased locally by these employees with their hotel wages o Stimulation of mass tourism  Many mass tourists visit particular destinations because of the availability of diversionary wildlife-based attractions  E.g. Kenya o Support for cultural heritage tourism  These sectors are highly compatible with ecotourism, and ecotourists are therefore likely to support them as value-added supplementary attractions  Ecotourism and cultural/heritage tourism are mutually supportive in many destinations Economic Costs (5.3) - Direct Costs o Start-up expenses (acquisition of land, establishment of protected, superstructure, infrastructure) o Not considered negative, because direct financial outlays are a normal and inevitable business expense associated with any ecotourism development o Negative implications can emerge if costs are insufficient, excessive, or improperly allocated or managed, or if they indicate long-term dependence on donors o Startup expenses include:  Purchase or lease of land  The establishment of infrastructure and such services as interpretation trails, visitor centers and parking facilities o Ongoing expenses include:  Upkeep and maintenance of land and facilities  Labor costs  Marketing o Size and distribution of these expenses include:  Orientation towards hard or soft ecotourism  Public/private sector control  Availability of land  Market image of the destination  Size of operation - Indirect Costs o Revenue uncertainties  Demand and supply side risks  Demand = leisure tourism is a discretionary form of expenditure that consumers are likely to curtail during times of economic or social uncertainty  Ex: 9/11 costs and benefits of air travel  Supply = political and social unrest are major risk factors in many parts of the world, especially when ecotourists are targeted by dissidents and terrorists in areas where government control is nominal  Ex: Bwindi Impenetrable National Park kidnapping of ecotourist = decline in visitation  Disease outbreak and seasonality also have effects o Revenue leakage due to imports and non-local participation  Induced by the magnitude of the multiplier effect being limited by the need to import at least some goods and services  90% of ecotourism revenue is lost through leakage  Effect
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