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Environmental Studies
Denise Grafton

Chapter 10 pp 178-199, Chapter 16 pp 349-366, Chapter 22 pp 496-533 Chapter 10: Hunting and Trapping  Evolutionary and cultural development of humans has shaped our dependence on animals  21th century: majority of people on Earth purchase their meat plastic-wrapped in supermarkets or on a plate cooked in restaurants  Hunting and fishing as a means of obtaining food is repulsive to many people  Clothing is made from cotton, wool, or synthetic materials derived from petroleum  73% of Americans approve of legal hunting  Approval of Hunting: 65% in urban areas, 67% in suburban areas, 73% in small towns, 83% in rural areas o Those more likely to accept killing and eating animals from the wild are those with more contact to nature To Hunt or Not to Hunt  More than 15 million men and women hunt in Canada and the US  Issue comes down to ethics and animal rights Albert Schweitzer o Felt that humans have no right to inflict suffering and death on another living creature unless it is unavoidable o However he himself kept a gun for killing snakes and predatory birds  1866-American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals: animal rights movements in the US extends up until the founding of this organization  Bambi Syndrome: first movie to introduce anti-hunting to the mass media; states predation does not exist and hunters are cruel o Four social precursors to the animal rights movement (Muth and Jamison)  Urban view of nature that is disconnected from the reality of wild nature  Popularized interpretations of science on tv or in published media  The application of human traits especially feelings towards nonhumans  Egalitarian notion: assigns the same legal and ethical rights to animals as it does to humans  People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) o More than 700,000 members o Dedicated to establishing and protecting the rights of all animals  The Humane Society of the United States (HSUS-1954) o 7 million members o Promote the humane treatment of animals and to foster respect, understating and compassion for all creatures o Banning animal skins and hides  Control of wildlife population is a part of wildlife management Should Hunting Continue in North America  Comparison of the philosophies of “animal rights” and wildlife conservation (Hutchins and Wemmer-1986) o Animal-rights ethic maintains that humans should cause no pain, suffering or death to creatures that are sentient o Nonhuman animals should be accorded the same ethical concerns as humans o Integrity of ecosystems, communities and animal populations is secondary to the primary rights of individual animals  Analysis of Attitudes and Characteristics of Hunters and Anti-hunters (Kellert-1976) o Anti-hunters  least knowledgeable about animals  with humanistic attitudes identify themselves with feelings of individual animals (association with pets)  objections of hunting arise from conflict between loving animals and killing them for food/recreation  with moralistic attitudes objects to hunting for more subtle reasons; unnecessary and evil exploitation of nature (violates the sacred values humans attach to life) ethics and social behaviour o Hunters  Sports hunters are associated with dominionistic attitudes where they were not knowledgeable about animals, show emotional attachment and focused on mastering nature (game animals are trophies)  Nature hunters have naturalistic attitudes have more knowledgeable about animals and more camping involvement o Four ways to minimize conflicts between hunters and anti-hunters  Place greater educational emphasis on ecologistic attitude to establish dialogue  Encourage government recognition of different attitudes toward animals  Diversify wildlife funding sources  Increase attention and financial allocation for nongame research and recreational programs Effects of Hunting on Populations of Animals  Hunting by primitive humans may have caused extinction of many large mammals and birds (Stone Age)  Rapid climate change may have been responsible for extinctions  Since 1600: extinction rate has increased to 19 species per century  Hunting and human-destroyed habitat are responsible for 57% of extinctions of birds, 62% extinction in mammals  Wildlife managers are responsible for: protecting wildlife from overharvest and provide high-quality hunting experiences  Current antihunting campaigns of some organizations will jeopardize the hunting traditions  **without harvest, growth of the population are balanced with natural mortality; average growth rate of a population at carrying capacity = 0  Hunting reduces the number of animals in a population BUT the loss can increase the growth rate  Maximum Sustained Yield: largest average harvest that can be taken continuously from a population under existing conditions o Maximum Sustained Harvest (H) = ¼ the maximum population (K) times intrinsic growth rate (r) = Kr/4 o Sustainable when…  Population is kept at a level of ½ of its carrying capacity  Harvest takes the annual production of the population 
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