Module 3_Textbook Notes.docx

298 views6 pages
19 Mar 2013
School
Course
Professor
Module 3
ES-295-OC
Module 3 Chapter 4: Ecological Impact
4.4 Ecological Costs
Activities that directly cause negative impacts (3 categories = building,
generation of wastes, and tourist activities
4.4.1 Direct Costs
Impact of building and generation of wastes
o Removal of vegetation, site leveling, and water flow disruption
Impact can be minimized, but still unavoidable from building
ecolodges, viewing platforms, trails, access roads, and parking
facilities
o Introduction of weeds and insect pests through non-local building
materials = non-deliberate problems
o High risk of groundwater contamination post-construction if waste
facilities are not carefully constructed
Tourist activities
o Hard tourists penetrate deeply into the relatively undisturbed areas
o Soft tourists cause wildlife stress and introduction of diffusion of
exotic species
o Tourists are often drawn to the rarest megaflora and megafauna, that
are least able to cope with attention (negative human-wildlife
encounter)
o Tourist activity 1: Wildlife
Even observation can have negative consequences for the
target species
Animals’ heart rates increase when humans approach them as
well as reduced feeding time, and time wasted standing
watching the humans instead of foraging and relaxing
Proactive adaptation can also occur (i.e. female grizzly bears
learned to remain near ecotourists in order to discourage the
approach of adult male bears who harass the females and their
cubs
Distance between ecotourists and target wildlife is the main
factor influencing stress (increased proximity = increased
stress response)
Problem is that satisfaction of ecotourists increases as access
to wildlife increases
Many other factors to consider for any given ecotourist-wildlife
encounter
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 6 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
o Tourist activity 2: Hiking and Diving
Hiking and terrestrial wildlife viewing co-occur
Hiking cause erosion, soil compaction, and vegetation damage
More severely hiking can cause sedimentation in waterways
and vegetation change
Stresses such as tree damage, soil erosion, and exposure
display a linear relationship with hiking (more hiking = more
stress on these areas)
Stresses such as organic litter loss, soil compaction, and
vegetation loss accelerate rapidly during initial exposure to
hikers and decelerate as more visitors come (damage is
already done)
Need for ecotourism managers
Buckley points out the following
There is still insufficient information to predict or
model the impact of different types and levels of hiking
in different types of environment
The sensitivity of different ecosystems to the effects of
trampling varies enormously
If trampling is heavy enough, death of plant cover and
local soil erosion will occur in any ecosystem
If trampling ceases, soil and vegetation will recover to at
least some extent, although this may take some times,
depending on the ecosystem
Travelers using mountain bikes and horses usually
cause far more damage than hikers
In most cases, direct effects of trampling do not extend
beyond the actual track and do not continue to grow if
trampling stops
Resilience to hiking activity obviously varies
Diving can cause sedimentation and coral breakage
Problem is inexperienced participants
o Tourist activity 3: Introduction of exotic species
Alien flora and fauna
Introduction of non native seeds through shoe threads,
waterborne pathogens, insects, microorganisms (i.e. measles
from human to gorilla)
4.4.2 Indirect Costs
Induced building
o Physical developments undertaken to support ecotourism (housing
constructed for employees of an ecolodge)
o Physical development that is otherwise attracted to protected areas
and associated with recreational opportunities (wildlife observation)
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 6 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Document Summary

Activities that directly cause negative impacts (3 categories = building, generation of wastes, and tourist activities. Impact of building and generation of wastes: removal of vegetation, site leveling, and water flow disruption. Even observation can have negative consequences for the target species. Animals" heart rates increase when humans approach them as well as reduced feeding time, and time wasted standing watching the humans instead of foraging and relaxing. Proactive adaptation can also occur (i. e. female grizzly bears learned to remain near ecotourists in order to discourage the approach of adult male bears who harass the females and their cubs. Distance between ecotourists and target wildlife is the main factor influencing stress (increased proximity = increased stress response) Problem is that satisfaction of ecotourists increases as access to wildlife increases. Many other factors to consider for any given ecotourist-wildlife encounter: tourist activity 2: hiking and diving. Hiking cause erosion, soil compaction, and vegetation damage.

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
Booster Classes
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
Booster Classes