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Lecture

ES295 Lecture Notes - Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Native Hawaiians, Ecotourism


Department
Environmental Studies
Course Code
ES295
Professor
David Morris

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Global Tourism Video
1. How do they promote their market?
1. Exotic, but safe
2. Image of Hawaii shaped by a radio show, ‘Hawaii Calls’
2. In the video, what did some of the locals feel were the problems from
this type of tourism?
1. Building what tourists would like, and not what the natives like
2. People are getting the wrong impression of Hawaii (e.g. Hula shows)
3. Exploitation of native traditions just for money
3. What impact has Hawaii had on tourism on other islands?
1. Tourist destinations have been modeled after Hawaii and its tropical
ambiance
2. Natives don’t like what tourism does to them or the tourists
3. People are coming for the ‘Las Vegas’ image
4. Tourism can threaten the very thing that tourists want to experience
4. In the example from Penang , what did they mean by niche
marketing'?
1. Designing hotels to fit into a particular niche
2. Penang’s neighboring island, Langkawi, is a new extension of tropical
destinations and is targeting a much more selective market…far away
from the land of mass tourism
5. What was the resort The Datai doing to promote ecotourism?
1. ‘Get away from it all’ amenities
2. Environmental aspects taken into account, hardly any trees were cut
down
3. Targeting lucrative southeast Asian market
4. Quiet and in tune with nature and surroundings
5. Controlled development, low-rise, strict pollution controls (e.g. water
pollution…self-contained facilities)
6. What impacts was the local community experiencing from
development for tourism?
1. People were forced to leave the island in search for work, so golf
courses and resorts could be made
2. Local people often lose out against global capital
7. They described tourism in Borneo as the frontier of tourism what
were they referring to?
1. Home of headhunters on the brink of becoming a mainstream spot for
tourism
2. A few years ago, only independent travelers visited Borneo, but
recently small local operators have begun pioneer trips into the interior
for more adventurous tourism this is the frontier
8. What are some of the fears regarding ecotourism on Borneo ?
1. Borneo used to be very remote and the consequences are on the local
culture
2. Fear of not passing down information from grandparents to younger
generations
3. Danger of cultural voyeurism
9. Finally what changes are occurring in ecotourism in Hawaii ?
1. Native Hawaiians set up a new ecotourism industry that is more
sensitive to the culture and land
2. Less taking and more giving

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3. Educated Hawaiian community and families work with government
4. Teach children to bring back authentic tourist prosperity
5. A need for an industry that supports the culture, that provides for its
people on an economic base and promotes the preservation and
continuance of the culture
6. If you lose the Hawaiian culture, you lose the industry
Introduction (5.1)
- Minimize ecological costs and maximize benefits
- Ideally ecotourism should facilitate the wellbeing and satisfaction of visitors
- Focus is on direct and indirect costs and benefits socioculturally
Economic Benefits (5.2)
- Direct benefits (5.2.1)
o Generates revenue and employment
Ecotourism involved visitor expenditures and the creation of
employment specific to that sector
E.g. Great Barrier Reef in Australia is more interested in
bringing in revenue from outside the country than circulating it
through Australia (no new net wealth this way)
Ecotourism related employment can have a major positive
effect on small communities even if the number of jobs appears
to be small from the perspective of a large destination
o Economic opportunities for peripheral regions
In economically depressed destinations, such as Tasmania,
where the traditional mainstays of logging and mining are
declining due to resource depletion, depressed commodity
prices and pressure from the environmental lobby, ecotourism
is being promoted as a viable development alternative
- Indirect benefits (5.2.2)
o High multiplier effect and indirect revenue and employment
Multiplier effect a measure of ongoing indirect economic
benefits accruing to a destination through the internal
circulation of direct tourist expenditure
Most calculations of economic benefit in ecotourism research
use such techniques as input/output (IO) modeling that take
into account the indirect and reduced consequences of the
multiplier effect
Indirect effects = hotel uses tourist expenditures to purchase
local food or pay its employees, then when the recipients of this
income do the same and so on
Induced effects = the goods and services purchased locally by
these employees with their hotel wages
o Stimulation of mass tourism
Many mass tourists visit particular destinations because of the
availability of diversionary wildlife-based attractions
E.g. Kenya
o Support for cultural heritage tourism
These sectors are highly compatible with ecotourism, and
ecotourists are therefore likely to support them as value-added
supplementary attractions
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