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ES295 Lecture Notes - Dual Inheritance Theory, Ecotourism, Genetic Drift

Environmental Studies
Course Code
David Morris

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March 14th
Chapter 9 Summary: Islands
The fact that islands are individual landmasses gives rise to special insular
considerations that affect the development of ecotourism.
o These include the presence of endemic species and distinctive ecosystems,
isolation and the strong sense of place it fosters, proximity to coastal
ecosystems and associated opportunities for marine ecotourism, and the
prevalence of 3S tourism in tropical or subtropical settings
Endemism and Ecosystem Distinctiveness
Species of flora and fauna are endemic to a specified area if they are found nowhere
else in their natural setting. Endemism results from the genetic drift that occurs when
an area is isolated for a long period of time from other areas of genetic input.
This also means that greater care must be taken to avoid inappropriate modes of
tourism activity
Sense of Place
The geographical and ecological distinctiveness of islands contribute to a strong sense
of place, as does a comparable process of cultural drift that has frequently given rise
to unique and attractive human cultures and landscapes.
o Sense of place contributes to the romanticisation of islands as fascinating and
alluring destinations that offer exotic and escapist experiences
Ecotourism is advocated by many academics and governments as an activity that
sustainably promotes an understanding of an islands sense of place. Ecotourism holds
a prominent position in these national tourism strategies, and in many larger
countries, smaller islands become completely based on ecotourism.
SISODs = Small Island States or Dependencies
These are a special type of insular environment, being either politically independent
or possessing a dependency status separate from their “mother” country.
o SISODs are largely concentrated in the Caribbean, South Pacific and Indian
Oceans. This is called the “Pleasure Periphery,” where most of the worlds 3S
tourism takes place today
SISODs account for 16% of all total countries in the world, even though they are only
0.3% of the global population.
SISODs continue to play a large role in issues associated with the management of
marine ecotourism resources, such as cetaceans and coral reefs thanks to UN
agreements on water territories
Evolution of mass tourism and ecotourism
o Mass 3S tourism in many pleasure periphery SISODs has implications for
ecotourism. Largely resultant from World of 2, these industries were
developed for economic growth and the idea that tourism was an ever-
expanding industry, and as a suitable and viable avenue for economic
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