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Lecture 4

Lecture 4.docx

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Department
Film Studies
Course Code
FS103
Professor
Sandra Annett

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Lecture 4
Cinematography:
The craft of photographing moving images with a camera
Includes recording the image onto film stock or digital hard-drive, positioning and moving the
camera focusing the image using different lenses and filters
Cinematography contributes to the viewer’s emotional response and aesthetic experience
Provoke emotional, intellectual, and aesthetic responses
Cinematographers “speak” to the audience in visual terms using images
Director of Photography (DP) or Cinematographer: makes artistic and technical decisions about the
cinematography
Cameraman: start and stop shooting, moving the camera on a dolly or track, select and focus lenses
Analog Video: A video tape system that records images onto magnetic tape, using electronic signals
Digital Video: A system for recording images on magnetic tape using a digital signal
Computer Generated Imagery (CGI): Images that originate from computer graphics technology,
rather than photography
The LENSES
The lens is the eye of the camera. It has an aperture to let in light, and a focal length to capture
images at different distances
Focus
Selective focus:
Rack Focus: when focus changes to shift audience attention
Depth of Field: the range of acceptable sharpness before and behind the plane of focus
Deep Focus: everything in the shot is in focus, from the foreground to background (first used in
Citizen Kane [Orson Welles 1941])
Photography-Based Process
Involves photographic and chemical process
Developing exposed film in a chemical bath produces a negative
The negative is printed to another roll of film to produce a master positive
Copying a master negative onto reversal film produces a negative release prints are struck,
(films exhibited in theatres)
Creating Meaning and Time: The Shot-
The Shot, a single uninterrupted series of frames, is a film’s basic unit of expression
Shots vary in length- can be very brief or long
Editing several shots together produces a scene
Scene: a complete narrative unit within a film, with a beginning, middle, and end. Often scenes
are distinguished from one another by time and setting
Directors and cinematographers generally plan each shot ahead of time to use time efficiently
A method for planning shots is a story-board
Films are generally not shot in chronological order
Shots are filmed more than once (excludes low-budget productions)
Each version of the same shot is called a take
Editor and director decide which takes will appear on film
Rejected takes are called “out-takes”
Uninterrupted shots of more than 1min. are called “long-takes”
Long takes build dramatic tension, heightens drama
Speed of Projection: 24 frames per second
Establishing Shot: the first shot of a film that lets us know what the setting is
Altering Time: Slow & Fast Motion
By reducing or increasing the camera’s recording speed, filmmaker’s can affect the viewer’s
perception of time
Slow Motion: A technique that involves filming at a speed faster the speed of projection (24 frames
per second). Then projecting the footage at normal speed
Slow motion is used for both comic and dramatic purposes
Fast Motion: Recording shots at a slower speed of projection. Fewer frames are exposed in one
minute, so when projected at 24fps, the action takes less than a minute on screen and appears
faster
The Camera & Space: Height, Angle, & Shot-Distance-
3 important variables for any shot are: camera height, angle on the action, and distance
from action
These variables convey info., form motifs, introduce ideas, and create mood
Camera placement excludes off-screen space
Off-screen Space: a part of the story world implied by visual or sound techniques rather than
being revealed by the camera
Filmmakers can use character behavior, dialogue, and sound to remind viewers that off-screen
space exists

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Description
Lecture 4 Cinematography: The craft of photographing moving images with a camera  Includes recording the image onto film stock or digital hard-drive, positioning and moving the camera focusing the image using different lenses and filters  Cinematography contributes to the viewer’s emotional response and aesthetic experience  Provoke emotional, intellectual, and aesthetic responses  Cinematographers “speak” to the audience in visual terms using images Director of Photography (DP) or Cinematographer: makes artistic and technical decisions about the cinematography Cameraman: start and stop shooting, moving the camera on a dolly or track, select and focus lenses Analog Video: A video tape system that records images onto magnetic tape, using electronic signals Digital Video: A system for recording images on magnetic tape using a digital signal Computer Generated Imagery (CGI): Images that originate from computer graphics technology, rather than photography The LENSES  The lens is the eye of the camera. It has an aperture to let in light, and a focal length to capture images at different distances Focus  Selective focus:  Rack Focus: when focus changes to shift audience attention  Depth of Field: the range of acceptable sharpness before and behind the plane of focus  Deep Focus: everything in the shot is in focus, from the foreground to background (first used in Citizen Kane [Orson Welles 1941]) Photography-Based Process  Involves photographic and chemical process  Developing exposed film in a chemical bath produces a negative  The negative is printed to another roll of film to produce a master positive  Copying a master negative onto reversal film produces a negative release prints are struck, (films exhibited in theatres) Creating Meaning and Time: The Shot-  The Shot, a single uninterrupted series of frames, is a film’s basic unit of expression  Shots vary in length- can be very brief or long  Editing several shots together produces a scene Scene: a complete narrative unit within a film, with a beginning, middle, and end. Often scenes are distinguished from one another by time and setting  Directors and cinematographers generally plan each shot ahead of time to use time efficiently  A method for planning shots is a story-board  Films are generally not shot in chronological order  Shots are filmed more than once (excludes low-budget productions)  Each version of the same shot is called a take  Editor and director decide which takes will appear on film  Rejected takes are called “out-takes”  Uninterrupted shots of more than 1min. are called “long-takes”  Long takes build dramatic tension, heightens drama  Speed of Projection: 24 frames per second  Establishing Shot: the first shot of a film that lets us know what the setting is Altering Time: Slow & Fast Motion  By reducing or increasing the camera’s recording speed, filmmaker’s can affect the viewer’s perception of time Slow Motion: A technique that involves filming at a speed faster the speed of projection (24 frames per second). Then projecting the footage at normal speed  Slow motion is used for both comic and dramatic purposes Fast Motion: Recording shots at a slower speed of projection. Fewer frames are exposed in one minute, so when projected at 24fps, the action takes less than a minute on screen and appears faster The Camera & Space: Height, Angle, & Shot-Distance-  3 important variables for any shot are: camera height, angle on the action, and distance from action  These variables convey info., form motifs, introduce ideas, and create mood  Camera placement excludes off-screen space Off-screen Space: a part of the story world implied by visual or sound techniques rather than being revealed by the camera  Filmmakers can use character behavior, dia
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