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Chapter 4-6.docx

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Rich Petrone

Chapter 4 12/4/2012 11:04:00 AM The Earth‟s atmosphere Atmosphere = air and the air is held to earth by gravitational attraction Air= 78% N 21% O, and 1% other gases (including Argon, CO2, H2O vapor and O3) (in Homosphere) 80 km into the atmosphere is the homosphere which also contains troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, ozonosphere from 80km to 480km heterosphere, thermosphere and ionosphere above that is the exosphere Linear molecule – central (C) atom & 2 flanking (O) atoms O = more attractive to e „s BUT molecule is symmetrical: partial dipole moment of the 2 C-O bonds cancel each other out BUT molecules vibrate in different ways…bonds stretch or bend Chapter 5 12/4/2012 11:04:00 AM Radiation and Energy balances EMR electromagnetic radiation encompasses a spectrum of waves of energy ->different wavelengths A wavelength is the distance between wave credits and is measure in um Ultraviolet (0.2-0.4 μm) Shortwave (0.7- 3 μm) Visible light (0.4-0.7 μm) Thermal infrared (>3 μm) Hotter objects radiate more energy and at shorter wavelengths than cooler obj Stefan-Boltzmann Law: E=σT 4 -8 2 4 (σ=5.6705x10 W/m /K ) Wein‟s Displacement Law: λMAX=c/T (c=2898 μm) 2 Solar Constant (arriving at earth‟s atmos): 1400 W/m Insolation = Incoming Solar Radiation = flow of energy intercepted by Earth‟s surface varies from place to place and time to time depends on angle of sun above horizon Shortwave Radiation from the Sun  denoted as “K” Longwave Radiation from the Earth  denoted as “L” Albedo:ability of a surface to reflect K expressed as a ratio (K/K) mainly affected by colour of surface black body Counter rad
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