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Week 8 lecture 2.docx

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James Hamilton

Week 8 lecture 2 Carbon Dioxide  What has been the effect of fossil fuel combustion, industrial activity and land use changes on CO2 in the atmosphere? o Keeling: measured CO2 concentrations in MAuna Loa  Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii  Keeling Curve: Carbon Dioxide  CO2 increase over the years  What will happen with CO2 in the future? o 450 ppm or more seems certain by 2050  How significant are the current CO2 values? Methane  Methane concentrations in ice cores from Antarctica and Greenland o Increased dramatically during the industrial revolution Nitrous Oxide, CFCs, others  Nitrous Oxide o Sources are fertilizer production and combustion of fossil fuels and wood  Also increased in values  Human Activities o Ozone o CFCs o Cloud distribution o Concentrations of aerosols  Forcings o Describes changes in the system that might cause an increase or decrease in energy in the system o Emissions of greenhouse gases are far outweighing the cooling effects through the aerosols How Much Climate Change?  Examine the Instrumental Record o Global network of stations (land and sea)  Rigorous qu
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