Week 8 lecture 2
What has been the effect of fossil fuel combustion, industrial activity and land use
changes on CO2 in the atmosphere?
o Keeling: measured CO2 concentrations in MAuna Loa
Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii
Keeling Curve: Carbon Dioxide
CO2 increase over the years
What will happen with CO2 in the future?
o 450 ppm or more seems certain by 2050
How significant are the current CO2 values?
Methane concentrations in ice cores from Antarctica and Greenland
o Increased dramatically during the industrial revolution
Nitrous Oxide, CFCs, others
o Sources are fertilizer production and combustion of fossil fuels and wood
Also increased in values
o Cloud distribution
o Concentrations of aerosols
o Describes changes in the system that might cause an increase or decrease in
energy in the system
o Emissions of greenhouse gases are far outweighing the cooling effects through the
How Much Climate Change?
Examine the Instrumental Record
o Global network of stations (land and sea)