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GG101 Part II Lecture Notes.docx

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William Bill Quinton

Part II: Weather and Climate GG101 Week 6: Lecture 1 Water and Atmosphere Moisture Three phases of water:  Gas (water vapor)  Solid (ice)  Liquid (water) RECAP: ENERGY IS ALWAYS CHANGED OR RELEASED! Ocean and freshwater distribution on Earth 2.78% -- Fresh Water Fresh Water  Large portion on Earth’s surface (Glaciers and Ice 99.35%)  0.18% Soil moisture  11.02% Deep groundwater  11.02% Groundwater **Surface Water includes lakes, atmosphere, rivers, and streams (0.003%) Hydrological Model -more evaporation in oceans Specific Humidity: mass of water per unit mass of air (kg/kg) Absolute Humidity: mass of water volume of air (kg/m3) Vapour Pressure: portion of air pressure resulting from presence of water molecules (mb) -small numbers ******Relative Humidity: amount of water held in parcel of air RELATIVE to max. amount could hold at the TEMPERATURE, expressed as a percent As the R.H. line increases temperature has higher saturation level ***Relative Humidity is dependent on temperature Cold water can raise R.H. i.e. Car defrost window is example of temperature curve -Warm air can hold more water therefor, relative humidity goes down *ATMOSPHERIC LIFTING: CONVECTION* S DOWN= Solar Radiation RH= Relative Humidity Adiabatic: internal process Three Lapse Rates Dry Adiabatic (DAR) Rate parcel is heating/cooling as it rises or sinks Saturated Adiabatic (MAR) Environmental Lapse (ELR) * Further cooling past D.A.R., results in precipitation and condensation 100% Relative Humidity condensation occurs and lapse rate decreased RECAP: R.H. Relative Humidity Adiabatic: Internal Process Dew-Point Temperature: the temperature when relative humidity has reached 100% 2 Rates: Dry Adiabatic and Saturated -As gas rises the density becomes less and less, therefor, when it rises it expands D.A.R.: dry adiabatic lapse rate, rate is constant S.A.R.: saturated adiabatic lapse rate, rate varies -The warmer the air the higher the R.H. -When air cooler the R.H. decreases *Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate - 10 degrees per 1000 m -unsaturated air (99.9% of Relative Air) -Dependent on cooling *Saturated Adiabatic Lapse Rate -3 degrees per 1000m -saturated air (R.H.=100%) Orographic Lifting : more atmosphere above the gas the warmer and more dense the air Clouds C
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