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William Bill Quinton

September 9, 2013 Essentials of Geography - Polar circumference 40,008 km - Equatorial circumference 40, 075 km - Equator 12,756 km - Latitude (parallels) Angular distance N or S of the equator 0-90 ° - Longitude (meridians) Angular distance east or west of a point on the earths surface measured from the center of the earth, 0-180 ° - Great circles – lines that cut the earth in half - Locating the Prime Meridian and standard time - To calculate the distance from the center of the earth to where you are use the Sun or the North Star (Latitude) - Solar noon – midpoint between the time the sun sets and the sun rises - Prime Meridian – 0 degree line - The earth rotates ¼ degree in 1 minute of time - If you know what time it is in a place of known longitude and you know what time it is where you are you can know your longitude - Requires very accurate clock ex. Noon at 10 degrees E Longitude, 3:30pm where you are, 3 ½ hours = 15 degrees/hour *3.5 = 52.5 longitude degrees - Map – a generalized view of an area, as seen from above and reduced in size - Scale – ration of maps units to ground units - Projections – process of transforming spherical Earth to flat map - GIS – systems combine spatial (where it is) and attribute (what it is) data - Databases can contain multiple layers: physical features and cultural features - Layers can be added to create composite overlays - Choosing how to combine data layers can make different maps September 11, 2013 The Energy Atmosphere System: Solar Energy and the Seasons - The sun is about 150 million km away from the Earth - Earth has a 23.5 degree tilt (Tropic of Cancer 23.5 degree South Latitude, Tropic of Capricorn 23.5 degree North Latitude) - Equinox Position: Where the sub solar point is at the equator, sub solar point is the position at the earth where the sun rays is directly overhead of the equator. - June Solstice the solar point is at the Tropic of Cancer 23.5 degrees South Latitude - September Equinox 12 hours of sun light, 12 hours of darkness (=hours of light/dark) - December Solstice solar point is at the Tropic of Capricorn, 23.5 degrees South Latitude - Geometric relations are import because the effect the angel of incidence, control the position of the sub solar point - No tilt=no seasons - How to calculate distance from the sun. I am 40 N degrees away from the equator, the sub solar point is at 23.5 degrees south, subtract 40 from 90 and the 23.5 which gives you 26.5 degrees N - What controls the amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth: distance from the sun, atmospheric filtering, and geometric relations b/w the earth and the sun (the axis, the earth revolves around the sun) - What controls the angel of incidence: time of day, time of year, your Latitude Monday September 16, 2013 The Energy Atmosphere System: Solar Energy and the Seasons - Solar radiation is the “fuel” for most natural phenomena - How does solar radiation flow through the Earth’s atmosphere, and interact with it and the ground surface and oceans. You need to know these to answer this question: o Nature and forms of Radiation o Laws governing energy flows o Laws describing radiation from surfaces o Budgets of radiation and energy. - Long waves and short waves are measures in microns - Laws governing energy flows: o Energy moves from areas of surplus to areas of defi
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