11.2 – Hazards of War
• The use of weapons to cause indiscriminate destruction to people, structures and crops
– to terrorize and maim.
• Considered environmental warfare or the deliberate release of dangerous forces into the
• Examples – triggering natural process by the use of industrial or artificially contained
forces into them. (E.g. poisoning water supplies, 9/11, triggering a flood to drown
• One of the greatest forms of dubious weapons – fire setting.
• Firestorm – meteorological event created by extremely concentrated combustion and a
fire reaching temperatures of more than 1000 degrees Celsius.
• Agent Orange – Combination of Herbicide Orange and Agent LNX, used by the U.S.
military as part of a chemical warfare program, Operation Ranch Hand, during the
o Approximately 400 000 people killed and 500 000 children born with birth
o Stripped land of vegetation making it easier to see opposing forces and deplete
o Environmentally, people can be contaminated through touch, consumption, or
o Potential to cause diseases, numerous cancers and diabetes. Genetically passed
on in some cases and can produce mental disabilities and spina bifida.
• Production of weapons can be as deadly as their use. Involves contaminated
landscapes resulting from escapes, mishandling and careless disposal.
• Cycle considers procurement of materials, testing, manufacturing, stockpiling, shipping
• Potential for facilities such as nuclear reactors, fossil fuel/energy facilities to be targets
during warfare or terrorism.
• These facilities are typically located near urban centres and river systems – enhance
likelihood of toxic material being dispersed downstream/downwind.
• Homelessness, leftover weapons and unexploded bombs in war zones/cities, minefields
or discarded equipment. • Land mines are especially pervasive – land still covered by unexploded mines in over
11.3 – Forms of Damage
1. Violence to Persons – death, injury and terror.
2. Deprivation of Basic Needs – food shortage, medical and social services, resources for
basic consumer goods, international trade disruption.
3. Geographic Violence – Targeting specific places and living space
a. Policies enforcing uprooting, expulsion and relocation of residents.
b. Destruction of human settlements – place annihilation.
c. War on Culture – violence directed at civil life, buildings with symbolic
d. Total Violence – large scale genocide or ecocide.
4. Demographic Violence – targeted for violence based on racial, religious, political and
ethnic characteristics. E.g. the Holocaust.
a. Genocide – to eliminate an entire group of people
• The attempted elimination of Tutsis by the Hutus – sparked by the death of the Rwandan
11.4 – Air War, Bombings and Place Annihilation