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GG231 (53)
Rob Milne (25)

Lesson 11.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Rob Milne

11.2 – Hazards of War Dubious Weapons • The use of weapons to cause indiscriminate destruction to people, structures and crops – to terrorize and maim. • Considered environmental warfare or the deliberate release of dangerous forces into the environment • Examples – triggering natural process by the use of industrial or artificially contained forces into them. (E.g. poisoning water supplies, 9/11, triggering a flood to drown people). Fire • One of the greatest forms of dubious weapons – fire setting. • Firestorm – meteorological event created by extremely concentrated combustion and a fire reaching temperatures of more than 1000 degrees Celsius. • Agent Orange – Combination of Herbicide Orange and Agent LNX, used by the U.S. military as part of a chemical warfare program, Operation Ranch Hand, during the Vietnam War. o Approximately 400 000 people killed and 500 000 children born with birth defects. o Stripped land of vegetation making it easier to see opposing forces and deplete food supply. o Environmentally, people can be contaminated through touch, consumption, or inhalation. o Potential to cause diseases, numerous cancers and diabetes. Genetically passed on in some cases and can produce mental disabilities and spina bifida. Weapons Cycle • Production of weapons can be as deadly as their use. Involves contaminated landscapes resulting from escapes, mishandling and careless disposal. • Cycle considers procurement of materials, testing, manufacturing, stockpiling, shipping and decommissioning. Dubious Technologies • Potential for facilities such as nuclear reactors, fossil fuel/energy facilities to be targets during warfare or terrorism. • These facilities are typically located near urban centres and river systems – enhance likelihood of toxic material being dispersed downstream/downwind. Post-War Hazards • Homelessness, leftover weapons and unexploded bombs in war zones/cities, minefields or discarded equipment. • Land mines are especially pervasive – land still covered by unexploded mines in over 60 countries. 11.3 – Forms of Damage 1. Violence to Persons – death, injury and terror. 2. Deprivation of Basic Needs – food shortage, medical and social services, resources for basic consumer goods, international trade disruption. 3. Geographic Violence – Targeting specific places and living space a. Policies enforcing uprooting, expulsion and relocation of residents. b. Destruction of human settlements – place annihilation. c. War on Culture – violence directed at civil life, buildings with symbolic significance. d. Total Violence – large scale genocide or ecocide. 4. Demographic Violence – targeted for violence based on racial, religious, political and ethnic characteristics. E.g. the Holocaust. a. Genocide – to eliminate an entire group of people Rwanda Genocide • The attempted elimination of Tutsis by the Hutus – sparked by the death of the Rwandan President. 11.4 – Air War, Bombings and Place Annihilation
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