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30/03/2011 17:44:00 GG 250- Geography of Canada Canada’s Regions: Concepts and Themes Regional Geography concerned with three things: • Detailed description of region • The interpretation of distribution patterns (patterns associated with one or more selected characteristics which define the region) • The relationships among the characteristics that are within the region Essentially two basic approaches in Regional Geo. • First is the Regional approach • Other is Topical approach. A. Regional Concepts What is a Region? • an area of the earth’s surface differentiated by one or more features which provide it with internal unity and distinguish it from surrounding areas. Regions are therefore human constructs. They provide us with meaningful framework. A framework we can use to apply to similar features or similar parts of the world. Regions are sufficiently unified: We are aware of their distinctive characteristics. We are also aware of their spatial dissent. You can define a region at different geographical scales… Three types of regions: • Mega regions (large sized, and applied at the global scale) eg. A Continent. • Meso regions (medium sized, are applied at the national scale) eg. Parts of countries like great lakes. • Micro regions (small sized, applied at the local scale) eg. Could be part of a region or city like GTA. There are many numerous criteria that can be used to set up the boundaries, most common are: • Define a region according to physio-graphical boundaries. Eg Rocky mountains • You can define a region on political boundaries. Eg, borders of a province. • Define a region by perception. Eg. Cottage country, which may not mean the same thing to you as others. B. Common Characteristics of a Region • There are Four: o All regions have a location. (occupy a certain part of earths surface) o All regions have area. (it does not matter how wide or narrow all cover a certain part) o All regions have boundaries. (they all have limits) o All regions occupy a position within a hierarchy. (We can have regions within regions) All regions have three basic components: 1. A core: The highest concentration of the distinguishing feature (language spoken for eg). 2. The domain (semi peripheral): The intensity of the distinguishing feature is less intense than the core. 3. The Peripheral: Not a clear limit of distinguishing feature. Four types of Regions: • Formal regions: Also known as a uniform region. o Defined as an area differentiated by the essential homogeneity of the distinguishing feature. (Distinguishing feature is entirely absent, or entirely present. Eg. Only French speaking individuals nothing else in the region) o Most formal regions are defined on human characteristics. Boundaries of this formal region very rarely coincide with natural regions. In terms of boundaries they tend to be very stable for long periods of time. • Functional Regions: o Defined as an area differentiated by linkages (intensive interactions/flows) among its heterogeneous yet interdependent features which contribute to the activity within it. o Usually applied as a spatial system as there are connections and interactions. This region will have a core area. City region is probably the best example of a functional region, such as GTA. o Boundaries can be stable but at the same time they can be dynamic. There is no guarantee for long term stability • Imposed region: o An area differentiated by arbitrary administrative or jurisdictional boundaries (i.e. legal entities such as municipalities, countries, and provinces.) o A concrete example is the Mega City of Toronto. o In the beginning imposed regions are not formal or functional. But over time it may evolve into a functional or formal region. • Vernacular Region: o An area differentiated by the subjective perceptions of its inhabitants (insiders). o In order for these insiders to distinguish their place as a vernacular region, they must have a sense of place. Sense of place meaning an emotional attachment, such as shared cultural experience, or shared historical experiences. Lastly it can arise from economic experiences. o An example of Vernacular, Acadia (in maritime provinces) it does not have formal boundaries. Another example is Northern Ontario, or cottage country. o Although this is based on perception. o There are no concrete boundaries. They are fluid likewise they are also conteste and socially constructed. 30/03/2011 17:44:00 Core Periphery model: (also known as centre periphery model, centre margin model, heartland hinterland model, metropolis inter-model) • A model of the economic system’s spatial structure in which peripheral areas are defined with respect to their dependence of a dominating developed core. • We can use this to interpret, define and in some cases use it to shape the different landscapes that make up Canada. • The model will usually contrast a dual spatial structure. • Two parts of this model are as follows: o You have a dominant industrial core. Usually going to be in an urban area. o A dependent resource periphery. Usually associated with a rural area. Economic aspects • Usually the core area determines the direction and rate of development. • It has economic, demographic and political power which comes from the core. • Market access is easier in the core than in the peripheral. • In terms of economic Core is distinguished by concentration and innovation, diversity and profit. • The periphery is categorized by dependency, and instead of diversity you have specialization. Applying to Canada Core In Canada you can find a very distinct core and periphery at the national level. The National core is known as central Canada, which is Ontario and Quebec. Central Canada is very densely populated and highly urbanized. Both Ontario and Quebec are associated with diverse economic activities. Central Canada is associated with political and economic power. Periphery Both western and eastern Canada are considered to be provincial peripheries. Northern Canada is considered both a resource and political periphery. Northern Canada does not have its own internal core. In the periphery the population is very thin and less organized. In the periphery there is specialized economic activity that is usually related to natural resources. Associated with political and economic dependence. Geographic Regions of Canada. Ontario, Quebec, B.C, Western Canada (also known as western interior and prairie provinces), Atlantic Canada (also known as eastern Canada and Maritime provinces), Territorial North Regional Tensions (Fault Lines) 1. English vs French Canadians a. Cultural distinctions b. Language Rights 2. Centralists vs Decentralists • Distribution • Representation 3. New vs. Old Canadians • founding People (Charter Groups) • Other Immigrants 4. Aboriginal vs. Non-Aboriginal Canadians • Resource Claims • Redress and restitution These can lead to… • Regional Autonomy, Self Determination, Cultural Integrity, Social Equality. These fault lines can be attributed to three things: • Different historical experiences • Attributed to uneven development and wealth • Variations in environmental endowments, that exist among some regions. 30/03/2011 17:44:00 Physical Geography Definitions: Solar Energy: the intensity of solar radiation at different latitudes. Air Masses Continental Polar: located over land in the north. This is dry and cold air. Continental Tropical: Hot Dry air. Located over northern Mexico southern US Maritime Polar: Find it over the Atlantic and over the Pacific. Over Atlantic the air is cool and wet. Over Pacific the air is mild and wet. Maritime Tropical: Warm Moist Air. * If we look at directional air flow over Canada for the most part it goes east to west. Ocean currents bring warm water to cool regions, but the also move cool water to warm regions. Ocean Current In our case we have four ocean currents that effect temperatures in coastal areas. They are: Pacific Side • The Alaska Current- contains relatively cool water and flows more less from south to north. • California Current- It brings warm water. Flows south to North. Atlantic Side • Labrador current • Gulf Stream *the temperature range will increase, and precipitation decreases as you move further away from the ocean. *Large inland bodies of water moderate temperature as well. During the summer the great lakes will make the air cooler. During the winter the Great lakes will make the air slightly warmer. The great lakes can act as a heat bank during the winter. Climatic Zones of Canada. Fig 2.6 In Canada there are seven major climatic zones. • Pacific- characterized as warm and wet. In this regard it experiences warm summers and very mild winters. There is very heavy precipitation which usually occurs in the winter maximum. It has no months where the temperature goes below freezing. There are no water droughts or deficits. • Cordillera- For the most part it is cool and dry. Usually there will be cool temperatures occurring at similar latitudes. Compared to the rest of Canada it can be best classified as moderate. There are just a few months where the temperature goes below freezing. • Prairies- It can be described as cool and dry. Overall precipitation is low. Much of the precipitation is received in the summer. There are several months where the temperature goes below freezing. There is summer water deficits. • Great Lakes St. Lawrence Region- Moderate temperatures and moderate precipitation. Usually experience warm summer and cold winters. Fairly uniform precipitation. There tends to be 3 to 3 and a half months during the year where the temperature goes below freezing. There are times when there is water deficits. • Atlantic Climatic Zone- cool/mild. Wet. In the Atlantic Zone you have cool summers and cool winters. Uniform precipitation. There tends to be a Fall maximum with precipitation. 3 and a half months where temperature goes below freezing. Has no water deficit. • Sub Arctic- Cool summers and Cool winters. Precipitation is very low. Maximum is usually achieved during the summer months. There are at least 6 months where the temperature is below freezing. There is a water deficit. The eastern half of the sub arctic, is relatively wet. • The Arctic- It is cold and dry, it has both cold winters and cold summers. Precipitation varies. There are at least 6 months where the temperature drops below zero. Water deficit is practically year round. Climate determines the type of vegetation. Vegetation itself determines the organic content of the soil. Soil- is a structured composite of minerals, and organic material, both of which are on top of the bedrock. In Canada there are five major soil zones • Cryosolic- this type of soil is very poorly drained. The soil itself is very thin or absent. • Podzolic- This particular type is poorly drained, it is grey in colour. • Luvisolic- Very well drained, it is unique in colour as it is grey and brown. • Chemozemic- very well drained, usually black in colour but sometimes brown. • Mountain Complex- Various types of soil. In Canada we have three basic vegetation types: • Forests (trees)- two basic types; coniferous (soft wood), Deciduous (hardwood) • Grasses • Xerophytic plants- moss, lichen, In Canada we have 10 natural vegetation zones: • Bearing rock and sterol gravel in North of Canada. • Tundra- treeless plains, and xerophytic plants • Tundra Boreal Transition zone- ribbons and islands of stunted coniferous trees. The ribbons and islands are located on an area full of tundra. • Boreal zone- essentially coniferous trees • Coastal Rainforest- characterized by coniferous trees. The coniferous trees are massive. • Montane Forest- combination of vegetation, usually includes coniferous trees, and grasslands. • Parkland- there are scattered patches of coniferous trees. • Grassland zone- different types of grass. • Mixed forest Vegetation- Mix between boreal and broadleaf. Combination of coniferous and deciduous. • Broadleaf Forest- Primarily encounter deciduous trees. Sometimes referred to as the Carolinian forest. Glaciation There are two types of glaciation that occur. • Continental • Alpine- occurred up north in arctic, and the rocky mountains. All of Canada has experienced glaciations In Canada’s history there have been four changes: What did it do to the landscape? • The ice sheets scraped and scowered the Canadian soil. • They carried and deposited the rocks from the Canadian shield to the south of the country. The deposits were in the form of (Till) which means unsorted glacial deposits. Glacial Features • Moraines- ridges of glacial deposits. • Till Plain- Land is usually flat and sometimes gently rolling. • Drumlins- oval shaped hills. Permafrost- Permanently frozen soil. Estimated at covering 67 percent of Canada. There are four major types: • Continuous- found primarily in the arctic. • Discontinuous- found mainly in the subarctic. 30 to 80 % is frozen year round. • Speratic permafrost • Alpine Permafrost Major Drainage Basins: Atlantic basin Hudson Bay Basin (Largest) Arctic Basin- major river is mackenzie Pacific Basin- major river is the Frasier. 30/03/2011 17:44:00 Week Three, Tuesday Canada’s Historical Geography Migration (settlement and colonization) • First People (aboriginals) • Second people (French and British) • Third People (Other Europeans) First People • The very first Canadians arrived about 30, 000 years ago. These people are referred to as old world hunters. They came from Asia/Russia, across the bearing strait, which at that point functioned as a land bridge. • They came into North America, via Alaska. • Around a 1000 years later these people of old world hunters migrated southwards, through an ice free corridor. Possibly down the coastal line of British Columbia. • They migrated with the seasons in order to keep a source of food. Paleo Indian Culture • About 11, 500 years ago this culture were descendents of the old world hunters. • What makes the two groups different is what they hunted. The old world hunters targeted the Mammoth and Mastodon, the Paleo Indians hunted buffalo, and caribou. Indian Culture • About 9000 years ago. • Some of these Indians were descendents of Paleo Indians. • Semi nomadic, meaning they were land hunters, and also farmers. Paleo Eskimo Culture • Aprox 5000 years ago • This group also entered across the land bridge. • They came in 3 successive migratory waves. Today’s Inuit population, its members are descendents of the Paleo Eskimo culture. • This group was primarily Marine hunters. Wale/Walrus/Seal Canada’s Aboriginal people make up three cultural groups. • Indians, that inhabit southern Plaines, and eastern woodlands • Métis, mixed ancestry of Indian and European background. • Inuit, people of the northern ocean, and inhabit the tundra area in the sub arctic. *each of these cultural groups has diverse tribes, related to that each of the three groups has diverse languages. Each of the three also has a diverse culture areas. (A culture area is a region which is based on some common characteristics.) People who share culture areas share the same characteristics: • Natural environments • How the culture operates (Hierarchy) • Type of housing • Common transportation pattern • Food • Hunting techniques • You will find a common set of tools for farming/hunting • Clothing or costume In Canada we have Seven of these Culture areas: • Eastern Woodlands o Occupied by two major groups; Iroquois, Algonquin’s • Eastern Subarctic o Occupied by the Algonquin’s • Western Subarctic o Occupied by Athapaskans • Plains o Occupied by Algonquin’s, Athapaskans, Sioux • Plateau o Occupied by Athapaskans, Kootenain, Interior Salish • North West Coast o Diverse range of Natives occupying area • Arctic o Occupied by Inuit. Until 1497 North America’s sole inhabitants were the Aboriginals. The aboriginal population rapidly declined after original contact with the French. Reasons for declines include, war, diseases, hunting areas being lost. Second People (French & British) First Permanent European settlers were fur traders, loggers, farmers, and fishermen that came from France. In 1608 the French established New France which was set upon St. Lawrence River. This settlement began with fur trading posts. The first Post set up in 1608 corresponds with Quebec City. We see the end of large scale French immigration 1759 because British and French get into War and British win. British Colonization began after 1776 (U.S declares independence from Britain) as British leave U.S and come to Canada. The Major destination for them was Nova Scotia, Ontario, and Quebec. Biggest set of immigration between 1790-1860. • By 1867 Canada had a majority English speaking population. 60 % were Europeans. Third People (Other Europeans) In 1870 Government of Canada buys land in the Prairies from the Hudson Bay Company (HBC). This land was being disputed by the Americans. The government promised free land to anyone who wanted to settle in the Prairies. That offer was originally made to people who were living in Eastern Canada (Ontario). Despite the offer, people did not flock to the prairie provinces. Back in late 1800’s the Prairies were considered to be too cold, dry, and too remote. Canadian Government then liberalizes Canadian immigration policy, and gives same offer to Americans and Britain’s. Same thing happens as not many ppl take up the offer. • Between 1870 & 1914 there were waves of immigrants coming from Northern Europe, likewise waves coming from Central Europe, and waves coming from Eastern Europe. • WW 1 Happens in 1914 and immigration is cut off. The result of that is in the Prairie provinces there was ethnic stability. Territorial Evolution In 1867 Southern Canada consists of Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick. • 1870 Manitoba Joins, Northwest territories as well. • 1871 British Columbia. • 1873 Prince Edward Island Joins. By 1905 • The extent of Canada now includes the Arctic Islands, • Manitoba, Quebec and Ontario, all have increase in size. • We see the creation of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Yukon territory. 1927 (between WW1 & 2) • Northern border of Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec is now extended into the Canadian shield. • Border Between Quebec and Labrador is established. After WW2 • 1949 Newfoundland joins Canada. • In 1999 Nunavut is formed * Northwest Territories is the biggest loser of Land throughout the development. * The external boundary of Canada was already set before 1867. These were set by treaties between Britain and United States. FAULTLINES * Faultlines represent sources of regional tension. * All four of the fault lines have specific geographic outlines (involve certain parts of country) *all four have the potential to destabilize Canada. Aboriginal/Non Aboriginal (involves the First and Second PPL) • Began with the arrival of the British invasion Indians are divided into 3 category: • Status Indians (registered Indian) • Non Status Indian (not registered) • Treaty Indian (status Indian, who belongs to a band who signed a treaty with the crown) TREATIES • A set of treaties set aside land as a form of reserves, and also set aside money in the form of yearly payments for those who signed the treaties. • Both the crown and the Band have completely different views of the treaty o Crown (Federal Government)- by signing the treaties, aboriginal people gave up their title (ownership) of the land and the government can do what ever it wanted with the land. According to the government the aboriginals have limited rights as land users NOT land owners. o Band (Aboriginals)- according to them the treaties guaranteed the shared ownership and guaranteed shared use of the land and its resources. *some treaties were partly fulfilled but most were not. Very few honoured what the natives beieved. Now we have two types of Treaties, historic treaties, and modern treaties: • Historic- anything to do before 1975, • Modern- anything since 1975. 30/03/2011 17:44:00 Historical Treaties • All based on limited land ownership by the aboriginal peoples • None of the historical treaties made were perfect. There were many guarantees that the government could not hold true. • Many were involved with the southern provinces Modern Treaties. • This is where much of the resource extraction took place. • In order to not make the same mistakes as in the past with historic treaties, they made modern treaties comprehensive land claim • They are comprehensive because they are for land use, ownership, and resource development rights. • These allow the aboriginal communities to become self sufficient. ND 2 FAULTLINE nd 2 People English/French Canadians Dating back to 1759 the year in which new France came into play. • In 1774 the Quebec act was created. (This act did two things: o IT insured linguistic and religious rights. o Extended Quebec’s Territory towards the North • In 1791 the Constitutional act was passed. o Quebec was split into two parts. (Upper Canada(Mainly English speaking) Lower Canada, (French Speaking)) • 1841 Union Act o Reunited Upper and Lower Canada Population of Canada after confederation • Divided into French and Canadians, English speaking population grew, and French Declined. • Outside of Quebec there were many conflicts over language and religion. • The Federal Governments reaction led French Canadians to believe they were being ignored. • Around confederation, French speaking population had the idea of cultural dualism. 1980 Referendum • Federal government gets upset and cuts power over Quebec’s provincial government 1995 Referendum • Federal Government tries to unilaterally recognize Quebec as a distinct society. RD 3 FAULTLINE Old vs New Canadians • Faultline begins in the late 1800’s • Western interior and prairie provinces become more populated. Biculturalism vs. multiculturalism • Large scale migration, from Britain and America helped to counterbalance the French speaking population. • The old Canadians expected the new Canadians would integrate and hopefully assimilate o Integration: economically integrate, getting a job and buying a house etc o Assimilation: over time the new Canadians would take on the identity of the old Canadians, Language culture, religion, etc • Until 1967 Canada’s immigration policy was Eurocentric. Since then Immigration has opened up to anyone from anywhere. Now Canada is a multicultural society. • Newly arrived immigrants. How do they become Canadian? o Canadian Citizenship? o Or Through Assimilation? o Or Both. TH 4 FAULTLINE Centralist vs. Decentralist • Involves a struggle between the core(the centralist), the peripheral (decentralist). • You can interpret this economically o Centralist: first to central Canada o Decentralist: the rest of Canada • You can also interpret from a political perspective o Centralist: Federal government o Decentralist: Provinces and Territories. Economically • Main issue economic competition o National Policy ended up helping just Ontario and Quebec. • After National Policy was in place all the natural resources, when exported, were controlled by cooperation’s that were in the core. Political • Has to do with the division of powers(what’s more important, National Interest or provincial interest) • Centralist want a very strong National Government to promote the National Economy • Decentralist want a strong provincial Government and want the provincial government to expand or diversify regional economies. • Political stance takes the alienation of the western provinces. • It involves as well the national energy program, this program was around for 1980 to 84. National Energy program Ottawa wanted the oil cooperation’s to give money. They took the money and used it for exploration purposes in the Atlantic and Arctic Provinces. Transfer Payments • Social programs that are federally funded and provincially delivered. • Some provinces financially relied on Ottawa. Before Nafta • Trade was east, west. From province to province. After Nafta • Trade went to North, South. Representation • The bigger the province the more representatives they have • Ontario and Quebec, have largest population and therefore have the most say with national policies. • BC and Alberta are experiencing growth. 30/03/2011 17:44:00 Demographic Trends • Population size (Canada, Provinces/Territories) o WE have seen a steady increase in the national Population. The steady increase is between 1867 and 1951. From 51 onwards we have seen a very rapid increase in the population. o According to info from stats Can, the population has doubled every 40 years. o Our population increase is attributed to natural increase (births). Population growth is also attributed to immigration. o Territorial expansion: as new land was added to Canada, our population increased. Since 1867 two provinces, Ontario and Quebec have been the two most populous provinces. The third ranking province has always been part of the periphery. For the third ranking province we have seen an increasing westward shift. • Population density o To calculate density: take number of ppl living in area divided by total land area. Canada: Population / square km= low population density. (3ppl/Km square) o Lowest population density is found in Territorial North. o Highest density occurs within Ontario o Majority of Canada’s population is clustered between Canada, US Border. Clustered in small pockets. o There is a very densely populated Urban Core that corresponds with Central Canada. (Ontario & Quebec account for 62 % of Canada’s population) o Core area referred to as Ecumene (portion of earth that is settled or inhabited. o Around the urban core we have an area of rural periphery. • Population distribution o Seen growth in the population among Ontario, B.C and Alberta. o Four population Zones: 1. Densely populated (60 % of Canada’s population) 2. Moderately populated (Southern Canada) 12 Million Residents 39 % of Canada’s population 3. Sparsely Populated (1 % of total population) 4. Isolated Settlements (Less than 1% of Total Pop) o 75 % of our biggest cities are found in the First zone. • Urbanization o Most urbanized are :  Ontario, British Columbia, Alberta, and Quebec o Least Urbanized are:  Atlantic Canada, Prince Edward Island is least Urbanized province in the entire Country. o Top levels of Urban system  CMA- Census metropolitan Areas  City must have population of 100, 000 residents or more.  CA- Census Agglomeration  Population between 10,000 and 100, 000  UA- Urban Areas  Population between 1000 and 10, 000 o Urban system in Canada is more less lined in an east west direction. Very narrow North South extent. o National Urban system: 2 major components  Population Core.  also has a periphery of widely dispersed cities o Since 1976 the rankings of the Top ten urban cities have been stable. o Two Trends:  WE have seen over time, there has been a decline of cities in the east of Canada, and a corresponding rise of cities in western cities in terms of Ranking in Urbanization.  Dominance of Urban system by Toronto. Toronto always Number two but now Number one. • Population Change o 3 Determinants of population change is Deaths/Mortality Rate, and Birth Rate. As well Migration/ Mobility  These three determinants come up with the demographic equation:  Population change:- Natural Increase + Net Migration  Population Change:- (Births-Deaths) + (Immigration- Emigration) Natural Increase- • has always been positive in Canada. There has always been more births than deaths. • Until 1971 our natural population increase because Canadians were being born. • Crude birth Rate (simple measure of fertility)- the number of live births per 100 people. o 3 Trends-  between 1871 and 1940 (pre WW2) birth rates were falling  1946 – 1966 very high birthrates  since 1966- baby bust. • Birth rates are considered average in Ontario and Canada • Below average in the rest of the country. • Death rates are considered average in Ontario and Quebec as well as B.C • Below Average in the Territorial North o Below average in Alberta, and Newfoundland. Net Migration- • Immigration has generally been greater than Emigration. • IN Canada’s history there are three notable exceptions: 1. 1871-1901 Canadians looking for jobs in U.S 2. 1931- 1941 The Great Depression. 3. 41-45 WW2 made no immigration to Canada. • Since 71 Canada’s immigration has shifted from Europe to Asia. • Within Canada the main destinations are: o Ontario, and B.C o Since 71 immigrants have moved to cities where prior they were in rural areas. * As things stand today Canada’s population growth depends on Immigration. About 70 % is due to Immigration. If for some reason the Federal Population cut off immigration, every woman in Canada would have to have a child. 30/03/2011 17:44:00 Southern Ontario (Industrial Core) • Agriculture • Manufacturing • Automotive industry Northern Ontario (Resource Periphery) • Mining • Forestry Urban Geography • Southern Ontario • Northern Ontario Faultlines. Ontario Southern Agriculture • In terms of Area we have about 8 % of Canada’s farm land. • We rank #4. • However not all farm land is of the same quality. If we look at only the high class land, we realize that Ontario has 52 % of the best agricultural land. • The best land and soils are in Southern Ontario, the best way to express it is to say the best soils are west of the Niagara escarpment. • According to Provincial ministry of agriculture there are aprox 200 types of crops grown in Ontario. • Compared to Western Canada farms in Ontario are smaller. Farming operations in Ontario are more diverse, and also more intensive (we can produce more out of less land) • Within the province we have two important cash crops soybeans, and grain corn. 62% of grain corn is grown in Ontario for whole country. Both of these crops are grown in Southwestern Ontario, but soybeans planting has grown to other parts of the province. • Ontario is a major producer of fruits, Tobacco, Vegetables. • Ontario ranks number 1 in terms of sheep and lamb are kept in Canada. Also number 1 in terms of poultry. • In Ontario, we have dairy farmers. More specifically, the Woodstock London Area, Bruce Peninsula, and Eastern Ontario. • Ontario ranks number 1 when it comes to farm income. • A lot of our best farm land is being lost to suburban development. Manufacturing • In Canada we are number 1. Ontario puts out about half of Canada’s manufacturing output. 80 percent of the manufacturing output. • About 50% of Canada’s manufacturing Jobs are in Southern Ontario. • Transportation Equipment and Petrochemicals are found in the Southwest of Ontario but more less in the southern part of that region. • Within Ontario there are two major manufacturing industries, Automotive and High Tech. • Half of the high tech clusters are in Ontario. There are 5: o London -bio technology(Human bio technology as well) o Waterloo –Software development, Robotics, internet apps o Guelph- Agrifood, also biotechnology o GTA- new media(meaning special effects) o Ottawa- Telecommunications (Networking) Automotive Industry • Ontario’s manufacturing strength comes from the automotive industry. • Automotive industry here generates aprox 81 billion in sales. • In the 1990’s the automotive industry experienced a positive growth rate. However there was a reversal. Between 2000 and 2004 the growth rate declined. Now since 2004 the growth rate has rebounded. • Ontario is the 3 largest automobile producer in North America. 1 is Michigan, 2 Ohio. • Automotive industry in the province began in 1904. (ford opens its first assembly plant in Windsor. • General Motors set up its first plant in Oshawa, in 1918. Chrysler followed in 1925 in Windsor. • In the 80’s the American auto producers were joined by Japanese auto producers. • All of the automobile assembly centre’s are close to the market. All of the assembly plants are more less located along or very close to the 401. There are three major clusters however: o In Windsor o Oshawa o Oakville • Majority of analysts are saying that the geography of the automotive industry is going to stay pretty much the same as it is today. This is because the American and the Canadian production systems are very highly integrated (applies to big three). Besides this another reason for no change is the American auto producers are still investing in upgrading the production facilities in Ontario. Also because the size of the consumer base we have we will not see a change in the geography. Northern Ontario. Mining The population is small and actually declining. It is also very dispersed. • The regional economy remains specialized, and relatively stagnant. The economy is also highly dependent on mining, forestry and now dependent on tourism. • Both forestry and mining developed as a response to foreign demand. • Mining- Ontario is leading mining province in the country. Looking at mineral production we are the third largest contributor. Like farming we rank number one in terms of dollar value for mining production. Mining involves two activities: the actual extraction, and the exploration. The actual mining exploration generates 500 million dollars. • On a global scale Ontario is number one producer of Nickel. Within Canada, we are number one producer of Gold (almost half). Also number one in copper and silver. Additionally there is Zinc. The mineral wealth lies within the Canadian shield. • As railways moved to the North so did mining activities. Blasting of the rocks for railways, sometimes resulted in accidental discoveries. • Within Northeastern Ontario, there are three most common minerals mined, gold, silver, nickel. Copper, Cobalt, zinc is also important in northeastern Ontario • In Northwestern Ontario, you find Gold, silver, nickel, copper. But here you find platinum and iron. • Minerals are not renewable, so many mining towns have a relatively short life. o Within Ontario we have a diversity of minerals. This diversity has been responsible for the abandonment of towns. How do we maintain this diversity?  The answer is high tech. There is a lot of research and development taking place. This R& D is based on  mining. • Diversity is keeping it alive, High tech is part of the answer. In the mining industry there has been a lot of modernization. This modernization has decreased jobs as there is automation doing the work. Forestry • 64 % of the province is covered in Forest. Forest cover 90 % of Northern Ontario. Ontario ranks 3. Despite having less forest cover Ontario has the highest percentage of productive forest. • Forestry represents 15 billion dollars. The Pulp and paper industry is the most dominant in Ontario, as it accounts for 25 % of all Canada. • In Northwestern Ontario, major forest industry is Pulp and Paper mills. In Northeastern it is lumber operations. Urban Geography • Ontario is among the most urbanized provinces. Aprox 85 % of Ontario’s residents live in the Urban setting. • The biggest cities in Canada are found in Ontario. • * The urban system we have today did not happen accidently. A colonial settlement plan of 1792 had four elements: o There was suppose to be a linear scattering of forts along lake Ontario. o There was also suppose to be a string of rural settlements (towns and villages) o The colonial capital was suppose to be London not Toronto. o All these places were to be connected to a network of Pioneer roads. • In 1793 the capital was moved from London, to Toronto. London was considered to be too remote. Toronto was more accessible, and Toronto had a very good Harbour. In 1881 the urban system had four elements: • 1. The Golden horseshoe. • 2. The grand river valley (Brantford, KW, Guelph.) • 3. Extreme Southwest (London to Windsor) • 4. Ottawa Valley. (Ottawa and Kingston) *If you look at the urban system today you can trace it back to 1881. Urban growth would not have happened in the Golden horseshoe without manufacturing. Northern Ontario Cont’d • In the cities of Northern Ontario, they are located along the southern border of the Canadian Shield. • Those cities would not be there if it had not been for the railways. • North bay, is considered central Ontario. Thunder bay and Sault St. Marie, are important for Northwest. North Bay, and Sudbury for the Northeast. 30/03/2011 17:44:00 Quebec Within Canada Physical Geography • Considered the nucleus of French culture in North America. • Quebec accounts for 17% of Canada’s total Area. Without water it represents 15 %. • Quebec is considered to be the third largest region in Canada. It is the largest province within Canada. • According the 2001 census the population was approx 7.2 million. This accounts for 24 percent of Canada’s total pop. o Trend with the population: Since 1861 Quebec’s percentage of total national population has been progressively declining. • In 2001 Quebec’s pop density was estimated as 5.4 ppl per square km. • Like Ontario Quebec also has population and size to define two regions that make up the province. Like in Ontario they have Northern Quebec and Southern Quebec. Southern defined by population. Northern defined by size. • Southern Quebec accounts for 90% of Quebec’s population. Of that 90 % much of this population is in the St Lawrence Valley. Southern Quebec is also considered the urban industrial core of the province. • In Quebec we have 4 physiographic regions that cover the province. o Hudson Bay lowlands- very small percentage of Quebec o Canadian Shield- covers middle of province, has become Quebec’s resource periphery. o St. Lawrence Lowlands- southern part of province, they represent the cultural heartland of the province and the economic aspect as well. o Appalachian Uplands- One area of this is the Eastern Townships, which has now become the agricultural periphery of the province. Second area is the Gas bay Peninsula which is considered a resource periphery. • Terrain: o Northern Quebec is a rugged and hilly landscape. o Southern Quebec is considered to be relatively flat. (agricultural activity takes place in South East part of province) • Climate o Three climatic zones that correspond with the province:  Arctic- lies along the shore of Hudson bay.  Sub arctic- Covers the Hudson bay lowlands, also the Canadian shield.  Great Lakes St. Lawrence o Quebec can be subject to severe weather. There are various floods, once in a while. Historical Geography • Quebec’s historical Geography consists of three periods: o New France (1608-1760) o British Colony (1760-1867) o Confederation(1867) • New France- corresponds with Quebec beginnings. o Established when a fur trading post set up on what is now Quebec City. o The fur trading post was established along the St. Lawrence river. The St Lawrence had two major advantages: Provided farmable land, as well as hinterland access. o The St. Lawrence allowed for the penetration of the Canadian interior. o New France was established under a Feudal System. Which means it was an agricultural society. The settlers who came as the serfs paid the state owners in the form of taxes as labour. • British Colony- migration beyond New France o British ruled Quebec for 107 years. The Faultline between English and French speaking Canadians, can be traced back the British colony period. o Under British administration, Quebec was still a strong political entity. o After Senioural system was abolished, farmers migrate away from feudal land. They went in a couple directions:  Some to the east, more specifically the Appalachian uplands called the eastern townships. Those that went here bought land from the British.  Others went Northwards, generally into the Canadian shield, specifically the clay belt.  The last direction was some of them going South. Called the New England States. Unlike those who went North and East, these people ended up working in factories.  Western migration didn’t start until after confederation. o There was not enough land to feed the people. At this time Quebec had a very high birth rate. • Confederation- Development of a cultural heartland. o Confederation helped to expand Quebec’s territory. o Since confederation, Quebec’s political strength has also declined. o Before 1945 Quebec’s society was best described as “traditional”. (meaning the population was largely rural, likewise the population was very stationary and insular, lastly it was church dominated.) o After 1945 that society underwent a transformation. (Two processes that changed the traditional society. It was changed by industrialization, it was also changed by urbanization.) o The focus of people’s lives changed. Before 1945 the focal point were three things:  Revolved around the farm  Around the family.  Around the parish. o After WW2 the focal point changed:  Revolved around the factory/office.  Also changed to the suburb. Economic Geography • Just as in Ontario economic development and industrial growth, they were attributed to the national policy. • IN addition to the national policy, Quebec’s economic and industrial growth are attributed to “mega projects” which are associated with Hydro Quebec. • In terms of current situation, Quebec is a leading economic entity within Canada. We can describe this economy as relatively strong and relatively diversified. Very similar to Ontario, however there is a difference. Quebec’s economic growth has actually been slowing down. Eg. Quebec accounted for 21 % of Canada’s GDP. This means that compared to other provinces they are the second most power economic province. • Today Quebec’s economy relies on Foreign trade. (The United States) Economic Structure (according to GDP) • Primary (natural resources)- accounts for 2% • Secondary- accounts for 27
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