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Cartography Week 7.docx

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Robert Sharpe

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Cartography Week 7, Lecture 1: Projections Part 1 Theme of Course= Maps are Lies Earth Coordinate Systems Geographic Information  3 Dimensions: location, attribute, and time Assigning a location to observations= Geo-locating, Geocoding, or Geo-referencing  Ideal system of geo-referencing have the following properties: unique address, method of addressing is commonly shared, and addresses persist through time When Geo-referencing it is either nominal, or metric 5 Distinct Methods of Nominal Geo-referencing 1. Place names 2. Postal address 3. Postal codes 4. Linear referencing systems 5. Cadasters Place names  Be used for geo-referencing, study of place name conventions is known as TOPONOMY (but very coarse- London ON, or London UK) Can convey more information when expressed in terms of their spatial relationships, like including North or South, Uptown or Downtown  Limitations o Coarse o Rarely unique o Not commonly shared o Only certain place names officially recognized o Can be lost over time Postal Codes/Addresses  Limitations o Systems vary among countries o Not universal o Medium spatial resolution o Limited to human-built features; doesn’t apply to natural features Linear Referencing Systems Distance defined point of reference, ground zero, used on linear networks NOT UNIQUE Cadasters Parcels of property and land ownership which are for taxation purposes and for record of its public ownership, unique to each city not widely shared GEO-REFERENCING SYSTEMS: METRIC Metric= superior to minimal system, addresses are unique, potential for infinitely fine spatial resolution, allow for calculation of distance and area There are two metric methods of referencing: Cartesian coordinates, then latitude and longitude Cartesian Coordinates Rene Descartes introduction system of coordinates based on orthogonal axis  In terms of mapping, Cartesian System only appropriate when assuming a flat earth  At smaller scales this approximation becomes untenable since it is impossible to transfer measurement along a curved surface  LATITUDE refers to location between equator and poles  LONGITUDE defined along major axis of Earth, a 360 degrees subdivision Graticule Parallels and meridians called a Graticule or geographic grid Angular Measurement= sexagesimal scale, 42 30’0” is equivalent to 42.50 in decimal degrees Geodetic Datum Shape of Earth NOT a sphere, it is an ellipsoid Si
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