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GG251 Cartography Week 8.docx

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Robert Sharpe

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Cartography Week 8, Lecture 1: Map Projections Patterns of Deformation Distortion is least at the contact between the projection surface and the surface of the globe, and increases away from the point or line of contact. Three kinds of distortion: Tearing, Compression, and Shearing Projection Families and Patterns of Deformation Azimuthal used commonly when projecting the poles, used often in Canada’s North Mercator= Cylindrical Projection Conical Surface, projection is not full world view. Easy to recognize due to the grid pattern (azimuthal is plain and circular while conic captures a ‘face’)  Tissot’s Indicatrix,used for various types of maps, conformal (cylindrical Mercator projection), equal-area (azimuthal), and equidistant (cylindrical PLATE CARREE) Classes of Map Projections Based on Geometric Properties Four important classes of map projections based on their geometric properties: 1. Conformal 2. Equivalent/ equal area 3. Equidistant 4. Compromise **Compromise is the acceptance of distortion, as long as it is minimized! Conformal Projections Conformal projections preserve the property of angular relationships, or local shape so that the outline of a small area is correct. Angles meet at right angles Used for measuring direction, and navigation scale is true at the equator (least amount of distortion) ’squares’ grow larger when traveling North or South of the equator Conformal Projections preserve direction around any one given point! Conformal Projection= Mercator Map Lambert Conformal Conic: area and shape are distorted away from standard parallels, used for North America maps (Lambert Conformal Conic) Equivalent, Equal Area Equivalent or equal area projections preserve area, all parts of Earth’s surface are shown with their correct area, as on the sphere. **Note: Conformity (shape) and equivalence (area) properties are mutually exclusive. YOU CAN’T HAVE BOTH! Albers Equal-Area Conic: conic p
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