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GG 281 Week 12.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Michael English

GG 281 Week 12 MUST KNOW ADIABATIC COOLING FOR EXAM!!!  DALR slope is always less than SALR- parcel of air that is cooling at the DALR cooler faster AWAYS, than that at SALR  If DALR, SALR slopes are to the right of ELR always unstable  Conditional Instability MORE COMMON IN ATMOSPHERE o Normally, breezes forcing air up a slope and get relative humidity less than 100% when RH occurs it is saturated  Orographic Rainfall o Environmental lapse rate can be cooler than environmental lapse rate and only rising because pressure system is literally pushing air up the mountains o This is conditional stability Aerosols Sources: natural (volcanoes, DMS, sea salt), and anthropogenic (industrial contamination) Impacts: condensation nuclei, scattering of shortwave radiation, absorbs short and long wave radiation Water Molecules  Aerosols Heterogeneous Nucleation Water Droplets freezing nucleiIce Crystals Aerosols can reflect or absorb radiation, can affect the energy balance! Sources of Key Climate-affecting aerosol types  Interested in surface area of aerosol because that determines how it reacts in atmosphere Aerosol Distribution 1. Number 2. Surface 3. Volume IMPORTANT Cooling effect of aerosols: direct reflection of solar radiation DIRECT CLIMATE FORCING Aerosol particles influence: size, abundance, rate of production of cloud droplets  influence cloud cover, cloud albedo, cloud lifetime Impact of aerosols  Impact of aerosols in the “energy budget of the planet” o A positive radioactive forcing (RF) leads to global mean surface warming, whereas negative RF causes global mean surface cooling. RF values are for changes relative to preindustrial conditions defined at 1750 Small particles suspended in the Earth’s atmosphere (aerosols) include fine aerosol, such as pollution smoke. Optical depth: refers to degree aerosol prevents temperature ________ Laws Relating to Aerosols Lambert Law= absorption is proportional to light of path length Beer Law= absorption is proportional to the concentration of absorbing species in the material Rayleigh scattering: aerosols
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