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Lecture 9

Lecture 9.pdf

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Wilfrid Laurier University
James Hamilton

Glacial Sediments (Deposits) April 9, 2014 1:12 PM Depostional Environment • Materials may be deposited ○ Beneath the glacier (subglacial) ○ At the margin or on the surface of the glacier (supraglacial) ○ As the ice melts out (e.g. englacial materials deposited at bed) ○ Into bodies of water near the ice ○ Into stream channels draining the ice Depostional Processes • Materials may be depsited ○ By glacial ice directly ○ By flowing water ○ Into standing water  Or some combination • How would the process influence the properties of the materials? ○ By glacialice directly ○ Begin in the subglacial environmentwith materials deposited directly from glacial ice (without modification by water)  The material deposited is called Till (Glacial Diamicton) Glacial Till • Till may be deposited beneath an activelysliding glacier through a process called Lodgement (LodgementTills) • Till may be deposited as ice melts out producing Melt Out Tills (Ablation Tills) • • Till may be deposited in mass flows, either subglacially or in the supraglacial environment(this produces Flow Tills) • General Characteristics ○ Unsorted to very poorly sorted ○ Mixture of fine and coarse sediments (diamict or diamicton) ○ Coarse clasts in till are often angular or subangular, some may show striations ○ Coarse clasts may have a preferred orientation(called a fabric) ○ Most tills are massive (no bedding or lamination) • The properties of tills will reflect several variables, including: ○ Bedrock characteristics ○ Glacial transport ○ Depositionalenvironment • Materials may be deposited • Materials may be deposited ○ By glacial ice directly ○ By flowing water Glacial Deposits: Glaciofluvial • Glaciofluvial (or fluvioglacial or outwash) sediment
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