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Lab 6.pdf

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James Hamilton

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Soil Orders and Distribution April 12, 2014 1:43 PM Soil Orders • Groups of soils (taxa) are organized at the highest level into Soil Orders • At this level, soils with similar properties reflect the nature the dominant, soil-forming processes • Soil orders are in turn divided into Great Groups, Subgroups, Families and Series • With each successive level, more details on soil properties are included and finer spatial divisions on the landscape are the result • The important soil forming processesthat influence the soil orders include: ○ (i) leaching ○ (ii) calcification ○ (iii) podzolization ○ (iv) lessivage (clay translocation) ○ (v) gleying ○ (vi) upward translocation ○ (vii) cryoturbation(physical mixing) ○ (viii) decompositionof organic material ○ (ix) salinization ○ And a variety of other biological, chemical and physical weathering processes • REVIEW figure 4.8 Trenhaile-----just know which soil dominatesan area of Canada General Characteristicsof the Soil Orders • Brunisolic ○ Soils with horizons that are sufficiently developed to exclude them from the Regosloic order, but they lack the developmentrequired for soils of other orders ○ Occur under a wide variety of climatic and vegetativeconditions ○ All have brownish Bm or Btj horizons • Chernozemic ○ Soils that have developed under grasses and herbs, or under a mixed grassland forest vegetation,in cool to cold, subarid to subhumid climates ○ Dar coloured A horizon (Ah, Ahe, Ap) and often a B or C (or both) in which there are high levels of base cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+) • Cryosolic ○ Soils that are developed in either mineral or organic materials that have permafrost within 1m of the surface or within 2m if the soil has been strongly cryoturbated as indicated by disputed, mixed or broken horizons • Gleysolic ○ Soils that have developed under wet conditions ○ Some horizons are grey or blue grey in colour and usually exhibit prominent mottles ○ This character results from reduction of iron and other compounds in the process of gleying • Luvisolic ○ Soils that have light coloured, eluvial horizons (Ae) and have illuvial B horizons in which silicate clays have accumulated (Bt) ○ These soils develop under deciduous or mixed forest or mixed forest grasslands in subhumid to humid, mild to very cold climates • Organic ○ Soils that have developed in organic deposits ○ Includes soils commonlyknown as peat, muck, or bog and fen soils ○ Most organic soils are saturated with water for prolonged periods ○ Commonin poorly and very poorly drained depressions and level areas in regions of subhumid to humid climate • Podzolic • Podzolic ○ Soils that have B horixons in which dominant accumulation product is amorphous material composedmainly of humified organic matter combined in varying degrees with Al and Fe ○ Typically podzolic soils occur in coarse to medium textured, acid parent materials,under forest or heath vegetation in cool to very
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