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Lecture 13

Lecture 13.pdf

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Wilfrid Laurier University
James Hamilton

Soil Forming Processes April 10, 2014 3:26 PM • What are the general processesthat can operate in a soil? ○ Materials can be added and removed from the soil ○ Materials may be moved in the soil profile ○ Materials may be transformed in the soil • Examples ○ Additions ○ Losses ○ Transformations ○ Translocations ○ • Eluviation ○ General term applied to the removaland downward movementof materials from a horizon (symbol e is used to denote it) • Illuviation ○ General term applied when materials accumulate in a soil horizon ○ • Review the Processes(fig 4.5) ○ • Clay Translocation ○ Downward percolationof water can carry fine grained material in suspension ○ Lessivageis the detachment and movementof clay from the A to B horizon ○ Produces a clay rich B horizon (Bt) • Leaching ○ Downward movementof soluble mineral compounds that are dissolved in soil moisture (from percolating rainwater) ○ Salts and carbonates are mosteffected ○ Can removesoluble compounds from soil • Calcification ○ Occurs where there is only a small amount of leaching ○ Calcium carbonate is movedfrom the A to the B or C horizon  Can producce C horizons rich in salt or calcium carbonate (e.g. Cca) leached from the A and B horizon ○ • Podzolization (Cheluviation, Chelation) ○ In a cool humid regions with coniferous trees, the surface is covered in a layer of litter and humus ○ Water percolating through these layers can have a low pH (organic acids) ○ Organic acids react with certain minerals in the A horizon, forming complex molecules that are soluble in acidic solutions These moleculesare eluviated from the A horizon and are illuviated into the B horizon ○ These moleculesare eluviated from the A horizon and are illuviated into the B horizon ○ Iron (Fe), Aluminum (Al) and organic compounds are most affected  Produces Ae, Bh, Bf, Bhf
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