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Lecture 12

Lecture 12.pdf

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James Hamilton

Fluvial Landforms April 10, 2014 2:37 PM • Channel Morphology • Alluvial Channels • Channel Pattern • Trenhaile Chapter 11 • Focus on Channel Morphology ○ Channel shape and pattern  New emphasis on stream corridors and restoration  Channels are the core elements of valley lands • AlluvialChannels ○ Hydraulic Geometry  w, d, v ○ 'At a station' hydraulic geometry ○ Bankfull Discharge ○ Dominant Discharge ○ • Channel Pattern ○ Morphologyof the local channel ○ Alluvial channel pattern is influenced by:  Sediment load  Valley bottom (channel) gradient  Discharge (flow) characteristics • Equilibrium ○ In a Graded Stream, the gradient is adjusted so the stream is just capable of transporting the sediments supplied to it ○ Equilibrium between the supply of sediment and the streamscapacity to transport • Channel Patterns ○ Fig 11.8 ○ Straight ○ Meandering (wandering) ○ Braided Anastomosing(Anabranching) ○ Anastomosing(Anabranching) ○ Bed Material Supply Dominated ○ 'Wash' (suspended) Material Supply Dominated ○ Gradient ○ Sediment Load ○ Channel Stability ○ ○ Straight  Step pool, cascade • Bars, Pools, Riffles, Thalweg (Fig 11.9) ○ Straight and Meandering Channels  Regular spacing of pools, riffles and alternate bars, spacing related to width  • Meandering Channels (11.10) ○ Sinuous Channels ○ May be described in terms of:  Wavelength (upside down Y)  Amplitude (A) □ Radius of curvature  • Meander wavelength, amplitude and channel width are related to each other and stream discharge ○ For example, meander wavelength is typically 10 to 14 times channel width • Meandering Process ○ Fig 11.10b:flowpatterns ○ Primary flow is downstream ○ Secondary flow (helical) is superimposed ○ • Meander features: ○ Bed and bank: sand and silts (somewhatcohesive) ○ Channels are relativelydeep and narrow ○ E
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