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Lecture 10

Lecture 10.pdf

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Wilfrid Laurier University
James Hamilton

Glacial Landforms April 10, 2014 12:04 PM • Review major non alpine glacial landforms ○ Moraines ○ Ice contact features: kame and eskers  Outwash ○ Streamlined features  Roche mountonee  Drumlins, flutes, crag and tail • Chapter 7- pages 199-218 Glacial Landforms, Moraines • Moraines ○ End or terminal moraines ○ Hummocky ground moraine (Disintegration moraine) ○ Rogen moraine (ribbed moraine) ○ Kame moraine • Ground Moraine (Till Plain) is not a ridge, it is an area of low relief comprised of glacial till End Moraine • End Moraines ○ Terminal moraine (used to denote the furthest advance in a sequence of end moraines ridge) ○ Recessional moraine (used to denote end morainesthat are inside the terminal position) • Process ○ Margin of an active glacier  Position is relatively stable (stillsand)  Sediments (mostlytill) transported to margin and deposited Hummocky Ground Moraine • Hummocky Ground Moraine (Disintegration Moraine) ○ Wide belt of rolling to hummockyterrain with numerous swales (kettles) and mounds (kames) ○ Comprised of till, ice contact and glaciofluvial materials • Processof Formation? ○ Ice margin, debris to surface ○ Supraglacial sediment accumulates (when ice flow velocities are low) ○ Meltwatermobilizes flow tills and produces glaciofluvial deposits ○ Ice melts out, depressions and mounds develop Rogen Moraine ○ Discontinousridges, transverse to the direction of ice flow, crescentic shape ○ Materials include glacial tills and glaciofluvial sediments • Processof Formation ○ There are several theories of formation:  Sediments deposited in shear planes near ice margin (Fig 7.4)  Reworking of older features (Bolton)  Formed during catastrophic subglacial meltwaterfloods Ice Contact Features: Kame • Ice contact features are comprised of water transported and deposited sediments (glaciofluvial sediments)  Ice contact sediments may show deformation(folding etc.), may be less well sorted and also incorporate glacial till sorted and also incorporate glacial till • Kame ○ Applied in a narrow sense to mounds of ice contact (glaciofluvial) sediments,and also to a range of ice contact features Kame Moraine ○ Largely comprised of ice contact (glaciofluvial) sediments with minor till ○ Often deposited at the ince margic from meltwaterflowing in contact with a moving or
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