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GG294 Geography of Tourism sept 13.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Barbara Carmichael

GG294 Geography of Tourism Global tourism -side: number of international tourists -2000 698.3 m, 2006 842 m 2008, 949m -value: international tourist receipts -2000 US$475 billion, 2006 US $735 billion, 2008 $856 billion -average receipt per arrival -2000 US$689 2008 US $856 -number of people employed in tourism industry -2000: 200 million (indirect), 74 million (direct) Rapid Growth in World Tourism Receipts -1986 US $180 billion -1991 US $290 billion -1994 US $340 billion -1999 US $455 billion -2000 US $475 billion -2006 US $735 billion Forecast 2020 1600 billion 2008: US $856 billion Definitions -Leisure -time in a way you spend in the way you choose (relaxation) -Recreation -activities you do in your leisure time -Tourism - travel more than 24 hours (outside of the place you live in to travel around) Definition of Tourism -Tourism may be defined as the processes, activities, and outcomes arising from the relationships and the interactions among tourists, tourism suppliers, host governments, host communities, and surrounding environments that are involved in the attracting and hosting of visitors. (Goeldner and Ritchie, 2003, p.6) WTO Definition of Tourism -Tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes. Geography of Tourism -who is a tourist? Tourist Definitions All definitions involve the idea of temporary movement -League of Nations (1937) -any person visiting a place for at least 24 hours (tourist) -any person visiting a place for less than 24 hours (excursionist) Travel came from the word travail in French that means work Travail came from Germany Tripalium which means high building Tourism Industry -Seven Sector  Accommodation  Transportation  Restaurant  Establishments providing facilities for recreation and entertainment  Manufacturers of handicrafts and souvenirs  Travel agents and tour operators  Government agencies concerned with tourism The Tourism Industry -Gee, Makins, Chow -Direct Providers -Support Agencies -Travel Agents -Tour operators -Tourism Development -Planning -Government -Universities Outline -Tourism entrepreneurs, the economy and the need for innovation -Tourism innovation process – how is it different -examples of tourism innovation from Ontario and beyond and issues of market demand, seasonality and education -policy directions Definition of Entrepreneurship -schumpeter (1934) linked the concept of innovation to entrepreneurship by suggesting that anyone who performs one of the following innovation functions is an entrepreneur -introduces a new product or process, opens up a new market, develops new suppliers or changes the structure of an existing industrial organization Kuratki’s (2009) definition of entrepreneurship stresses innovation and commercialization -entrepreneurship is a dynamic process of vision, change and creation. It requires an application of energy and passion toward the creation and implementation of new ideas and creative solutions. (p.5). This involves the ability to take risks To achieve big rewards “I am often asked what it is to be an entrepreneur and there is no simple answer. It is clear that successful entrepreneurs are vital for a healthy, vibrant competitive economy. If you look around you most of the largest companies have their foundations in one or two individual who have the determination to turn a vision into a reality. “- Richard Branson Entrepreneurs and the economy -the process of entrepreneurship is recognized as being at the heart of an economic development task and driven by the motivation of individuals who seek to satisfy their personal goals. Entrepreneurs are like bees Key sources of innovation in services -external r and d (research and development) -other markets industry o
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