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GG101 Week 9 Lecture 1.docx

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James Hamilton

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GG Week 9 Lecture 1 Attribution  What is responsible for the ongoing climate change? o Climate change is influenced by human activities and natural processes (e.g. solar variations, volcanic eruptions, ocean heat exchange)  Most is attributed to human activities Consequences, Examples  Sea level Next Steps - read in textbook  Action Anyone? o Rio o Kyoto o Copenhagen  No global agenda on addressing this problem  Response o Adaption, mitigation, conservation Hydrologic Cycle, Soil Moisture (pages 234 - 246 in textbook) 1) Introduction  Hydrology o study of the distribution of water in all its forms  atmospheric moisture  groundwater  surface water  soil moisture  snow and ice 2) Hydrologic Cycle  Model showing the distribution and movement of water in the earth atmosphere system (fig 9.1)  Stores o Oceans, ice sheets, groundwater, soil moisture, fresh surface, saline surface, atmosphere (% of each? figure 7.3)  Processes (Linkages) o Evaporatranspiration o Evaporation o Condensation o Advection  lateral movement of warm moist air o Precipitation o Runoff  series of processes where we move water from the land into the oceans o Other 3) Soil Moisture  Why soil moisture? o Consider agriculture: crop yields directly related to soil moisture o Consider river runoff o Drought?  Porosity o Proportion of a volume of soil (or sediment or rock) that is open space  Effective Porosity o Proportion of a soil (or sediment or rock) that consists of interconnected pores  Permeability o Ability of a soil (or sediment or rock) to transmit fluids o What influences permeability?  porosity  effective porosi
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