GG102 Lecture Notes - Spatial Planning, Map Projection, Contour Line
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What is Human Geography?
•Fascination is not the same as understanding
oGeographers try to understand the land around them
oConnected through various sources, such as Google
•Geography is the examination of the spatial development of human features
oWithin certain places, regions, globally
oAgriculture, populations, pollution, cities, travel, diseases, etc
Observation then…… Explanation
Maps Statistical Models
Diagrams Conceptual Models
Tables Mathematical Models
Basic Tools and Concepts
Mental Maps Location GPS
GIS Maps Distance
Space Accessibility Spatial Interaction
oFormal: Cognitive images representing a person’s perceptions,
ideas, and knowledge of a location
oPractical: What you see in your mind’s eye when you think of a
•Basic Elements of a Mental Map
Landmarks Signs Memories
Pathways/Roads Boundaries Buildings
Names/Labels Orientation Weather
People Terrain Nodes (gatherings)
•What good are they?
oMental Maps influence human behaviour and activities
Images of certain city districts
Emotional Attachments to places
Sense of Identity and Belonging
•Names, regions, places
•Latitude is the angle expressed in degrees & minutes North or South of
•Longitude is the Angle east or west of the Prime Meridian
•GIS (Geographic Information System)
•GPS (Global Positioning System)
•Qualitative techniques (Interview, Participant Observation, Textual
•Quantitative techniques (Questionnaires, Statistics)
What is a Map?
•2-dimesional flat representation of a part of the Earth’s surface
What is its purpose?
•Simplifies reality so we can comprehend reality
•All comes at a price
oSelection, generalization, standards and conventions, etc.
oJust shows simplified view; no textures, no specific details
Cartography – Art + Science of Mapmaking
•Traditionally, used for primary description
•Recently, used for analysis, explanation, prediction
•MAPS ARE NOT ‘TRUE’ OR ‘REAL’
•Maps are created by people
•Maps are repositories of trust and controlled fiction
•Some publishers deliberately place in watermarks or mistakes to protect map
•Other methods of cover up is covering over parts of land with different types
Decisions in Mapmaking
oHow much do we want to show (area & detail)?
oWhat do we want to show? (based on data)
oWhich of the following do we want to show undistorted (area size,
shape or distance)?
oWhat do we want to show?
Raw values (basic locations)
Discrete (countable) phenomena
•Derived values (percentages)