GG102 Lecture Notes - Spatial Planning, Map Projection, Contour Line

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Published on 24 Nov 2012
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What is Human Geography?
Fascination is not the same as understanding
oGeographers try to understand the land around them
oConnected through various sources, such as Google
Maps/Streetview/Earth
Geography is the examination of the spatial development of human features
and activities
oWithin certain places, regions, globally
oAgriculture, populations, pollution, cities, travel, diseases, etc
Observation then…… Explanation
Maps Statistical Models
Diagrams Conceptual Models
Tables Mathematical Models
Etc. Etc
Basic Tools and Concepts
Mental Maps Location GPS
GIS Maps Distance
Space Accessibility Spatial Interaction
Scale
Mental Maps
oFormal: Cognitive images representing a person’s perceptions,
ideas, and knowledge of a location
oPractical: What you see in your mind’s eye when you think of a
place
Basic Elements of a Mental Map
Landmarks Signs Memories
Pathways/Roads Boundaries Buildings
Names/Labels Orientation Weather
People Terrain Nodes (gatherings)
Districts Emotions
What good are they?
oMental Maps influence human behaviour and activities
Navigation
Shopping
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Images of certain city districts
Place marketing
Emotional Attachments to places
Sense of Identity and Belonging
Location
Names, regions, places
Relative location
Longitude, Latitude
Latitude is the angle expressed in degrees & minutes North or South of
the Equator
Longitude is the Angle east or west of the Prime Meridian
Geographers’ Tools
Cartography (mapmaking)
GIS (Geographic Information System)
GPS (Global Positioning System)
Qualitative techniques (Interview, Participant Observation, Textual
Analysis)
Quantitative techniques (Questionnaires, Statistics)
What is a Map?
2-dimesional flat representation of a part of the Earth’s surface
What is its purpose?
Simplifies reality so we can comprehend reality
All comes at a price
oSelection, generalization, standards and conventions, etc.
oJust shows simplified view; no textures, no specific details
Cartography – Art + Science of Mapmaking
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Traditionally, used for primary description
Recently, used for analysis, explanation, prediction
MAPS ARE NOT ‘TRUE’ OR ‘REAL’
Maps are created by people
Maps are repositories of trust and controlled fiction
Some publishers deliberately place in watermarks or mistakes to protect map
copyrights
Other methods of cover up is covering over parts of land with different types
of land
Decisions in Mapmaking
Map Scale
oHow much do we want to show (area & detail)?
Map Type
oWhat do we want to show? (based on data)
Map Projection
oWhich of the following do we want to show undistorted (area size,
shape or distance)?
Map Type
oWhat do we want to show?
Dot Map
Raw values (basic locations)
Discrete (countable) phenomena
Exact locations
Choropleth Map
Derived values (percentages)
Density, frequency
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