Class Notes (811,045)
Canada (494,458)
GS101 (198)

GS week 9 lecture 1.docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

Wilfrid Laurier University
Global Studies
Timothy Clark

Globalization and Culture What is the Globalization of Culture?  Culture and globalization: "Cultural globalization refers to the intensificaition and expansion of cultural flows across the globe" (Steger, 71). How does culture "flow"? o Migration o Tourism o Education  more people in the world studying elsewhere from where they were born o Cuisine  variety of foods available o Art o Media (television, film, internet) Thesis 1: Cultural Homogenization  Globalization is increasingly producing a homogenous global culture  Optimistic Hyperglobalizers: Fukuyama and the "End of History" o world progressively moving towards a set of global values that are superior to the previous values o they think it is a good thing o Fukuyama argues in his book "end of history" that with the end of communism we are all moving towards neo capitalism o Two drivers of Human History  Desire for well-being and technological means to satisfy  well-being = material well-being  technological advance necessarily adopted broadly and transforms economic organization towards capitalism  Fukuyama argues this is a good thing  Desire for Recognition (Hegel)  all human beings have a fundamental desire to be equal to other human beings  Master-slave dialectic o throughout history society has been one group of people dominating another o French Revolution: self-mastery of the slaves (popular sovereignty) and rule of law / individual rights  individual rights: we all have the same rights and freedom Fukuyama and the End of History  History as the "coherent and directional transformation of human societies"  Triumph of economic and political liberalism marks the end of history (of ideological conflict), because "we cannot picture ourselves a world that is essentially different from the present one, and at the same time better." o However, China is not liberal capitalism  Not the end of conflict but the end of ideology The Global Rise of Liberal Democracy  Liberal democracy is the dominant global political system Thesis 1: Cultural Homogenization  Pessimistic hypgerglobalizers o believe we are moving towards a homogenous culture, but think it is a bad thing o Americanization/McDonaldization  American capital flows, embodied in transnational corporations (coke, Disney, McDonald's, Nike, etc.) form the conduits for a cultural colonization of the globe: the commodity is in the culture and the culture is in the commodity  commodities dominating the culture What is the Role of the "Communications Industry"?  From competition to monopoly: o In 2006, 8 TNCs (Yahoo, Google, AOL/Time Warner, Microsoft, Viacom, General Electric, Disney, and News Corporation) controlled over 2/3 of the revenues generated by the communications industry  "The crucial cultural innovators of earlier decades - small, independent record labels, radio stations, movie theatres, newspapers, and book publishers - have become virtually extinct" (Steger 79) o Advertising: manufacturing demand via identity formation  they manufacture demand for products by shaping the way people think about themselves  3 of every 4 women in the U.S. between 25 and 45 have an eating disorder; annual cosmetic surgeries in the US have risen from 7 million in 2000 to an estimated 55 million by 2015 and 90% of patients are female o advertising has affected how women feel and think about themselves in the role of society (sexual objects) o South Korea leads the world in cosmetic surgery Modes of Resistance: Culture Jamming  people use forms of western media to make critical messages Thesis 2: Cultural Hybridization  term from botany: crossing of 2 distantly related strains to produce a new plant with novel properties produced by the genetic mixing  Roland Robertson: "Glocalization" o these global iconic cultural symbols are taken and adapted by each local culture o Local transformation of western consumerist forces  take different forms in different countries  Are Mcdonald's Hybridization from the bottom up?  The case of Otavalo, Ecuador: Transforming Indigenity  Korovkin asks: "... what is the fate of ethnic culture in
More Less

Related notes for GS101

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.