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GS101 Week 9 Lecture 2.docx

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Global Studies
Course Code
Timothy Clark

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GS101 Week 9 Lecture 2 Globalization and Migration "Treaty Peoples" and the origins of modern Canadian migration  From oral to written treaties o Royal Proclamation of 1763  Formalize negotiations with Native population  Prevent "great frauds and abuses"  Recognition of self-government and Aboriginal title  Within confines of Imperial Expansionism: "The several nations of tribes of Indians, with whom we are connected, and who live under our protection, should not be molested or disturbed in the possession of such parts of our dominions and territories as, not having been ceded to, or purchased by us, are reserved to them, or any of them, as by hunting grounds..." The Legacy of Broken Treaties  Written treaties capture crown understanding o illiteracy and oral traditions  often many oral agreements that weren't included in written treaties  No laws for implementation and protection of treaty rights o Other departments and objectives trumped treaties  Loss of land and treaty rights (hunting, fishing, logging)  From treaties to the Indian Act (1876) o Define "Status Indian" and native government and culture  Lost by marriage to non-status male or enfranchisement until 1960  had to give up legal status to vote  could not marry besides natives if they wanted to keep their status  "Indian Agents", council power, benefit recipients  If you didn't meet standards of government you could lose your status (Indian agents)  council power: had to give up legal status to vote  1895 amendment criminalized native ceremonies  made it illegal/punishable by prison From treaties to segregation and assimilation  Residential Schools (1849-1996) o funded and managed by government and churches o compulsory for over 150,000 Native youth o banned from speaking native languages and engaging in cultural practices o intense physical, psychological, and sexual abuse  Estimated 25% - 50% of students died Native Peoples in Canada Today  Aboriginal families earn 70% of median Canadian family  Native suicide rate 4-5 times national rate  per capita funding gap for on-reserve schools: $2,500 o Over 500 reserve schools lack adequate infrastructure and trained teachers o 60% of reserve students will not finish high school  Native people less than 3% of population but 18% of prisoners o 50% in prairie provinces Official Immigration Policy in Canada  Race, ethnicity, and immigration o Prioritize British immigrants until late twentieth century  In 1900, 75% from Britain and United States  a nation of emigrants o Western Settlement  Immigration Act of 1910: authorized prohibition of immigrants "... belonging to any race deemed unsuited to the climate or requirements of Canada"  wanted British immigrants  preferred, non-preferred, prohibited o Preferred: British, U.S., Western Europeans (German) o Non-Preferred: Asian, Black, Jew8  Chinese Head Tax: $500 by 1903  Quotas on Japanese and spousal restrictions  weren't allowed to bring spouses so they don't reproduce  Health regulations for black migrants from Caribbean  government considered black females prone to promiscuity and single motherhood  Non-preferred more likely to receive temporary entry to work in servile labour, i.e., railways Official Immigration Policy in Canada  From race to the "points system" (1967) o age, education, skills and employment opportunities  points system tries to match the needs of the country with the applicants to the country o abolishes discrimination on basis of race or natio
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