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Globalization and Human Rights.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Global Studies
Timothy Clark

Globalization and Human Rights  Glocalization = local culture is persisting in globalization forcing  Glocomoddification = local variants controlled by small number of transnational corporations Origins of the Global Human Rights Regime  World War 2 and the Holocaust  Charter of the United Nations (1945) o Article 1, Section 3: promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms  Universal Declaration on Human Rights (1948) o More concrete form of Charter of the United Nations o life, liberty, and security of the person  some rights contradicted each other  non-discrimination and freedom of thought and expression  adequate standard of living, including food, clothing, housing, medical care, and social services  radical claim, however it is the basic driving mechanism of capitalism What are "Human Rights"?  Debate broke out about which of these were actually human rights  The Cold War and the "battle" over human rights (1966) o International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)  international statement on human rights supported by U.S and western capitalist countries  negative rights: life, security, non-discrimination, property, and religion  doesn't have freedom to, ex: have freedom to life but not necessarily healthcare  promoted by capitalist west o International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESC)  positive rights: labour, social security, food, water, clothing, housing, education, and health care  freedom for labour: good working conditions, not a bad job  need food, water, clothing, housing for life  if working, have the right to these freedoms o tension between negative and positive rights?  who's going to pay for these rights?  tax payers  basic to liberal societies, communist countries attempt to get rid of it by getting rid of some basic rights (ex: right to own property) Three Generations of Human Rights  first generation life, property, equality before the law, conscience and expression, political participation  second generation: material subsistence (food, clothing, shelter), education, healthcare, labour rights o people began to recognize they had interests with other people beyond their own narrow interests and began to organize into parties to fight for their interests o largely implemented in the developed world after the 2nd world war  third generation: clean air and water, cultural survival, substantive equality (affirmative action) o substantive equality = women standard of living, jobs they are in, money they make World Economic Forum: Gender Gap Rankings (2012)  Iceland 1st, Canada 21st Canada's Persistent Gender Gap  women earn 64% of men ($30,100 to $47,000) o 26.9% of women work part-time / 11.9% of men o occupational segregation: 67% of women work in teaching, nursing and health related fields  very little advance has been made in areas such as engineering and math o occupational wage gaps: 71% manufacturing, 73% sales and service, 80% management  making less than men do in same occupations  women comprise 48% of labour force but only 22% of senior management, unchanged over past 2 decades  women make up majority of voters but only 20.8% of MPs (member of parliament)  women represent nearly 50% of lawyers under 50 years old, but only 30% of judges (27% of appointments under Harper) Focus on Canada: Peacemaker or Cold Warrior?  J.L. Granastein: "Canadians were middlemen, honest brokers, helpful fixers in a world where these qualties were rare. peacekeeping made us different and somehow better." o Rethinking Lester Pearson, Peacemaker  opposed liberation of Nelson Mandela and UN resolutions denouncing and apartheid in South Africa  backed CIA-sponsored coups in Guatemala and Iran  supported military dictatorships in Brazil and the Dominican Republic  supported colonial powers against anti-colonial struggles in Algerian, Vietnam, and Indonesia  advocated Ottawa vote against ban on nuclear weapons in the United Nations in 1954 and supported arming the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) with tactical nuclear weapons  in 1957, Canada spend half the federal budget on armed forces and security o Before this was a part of our identity, but Harper is changing us to more militaristic Imperial Canada?  by
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