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GS101 Week 11 Lecture 2.docx

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Global Studies
Timothy Clark

GS101 Week 11 Lecture 2 Origins of the Global Food System • The Temperate-Grain-Livestock Complex • Britain, the Enclosure Movement, and Agrarian Capitalism • The Rise of Population and Agricultural Demand • First Response: Imperialism • Population Exports • Food Imports • Cecil Rhodes on the “bread-and-butter” of imperialism: way of feeding surplus population through immigration • Imperial expansion helped through exporting people (ex: to Americas to be farmers) • Second Response: The Agricultural Revolution • Agricultural revolution: changes in which we relate to land and produce agricultural goods • Temperate-grain-livestock complex = emergence of a food system that came from temperate regions of western Europe and revolved around grain and livestock production • Can be traced to transformations that were happening in Britain (origins of Capitalist organization) • Enclosure movement = dismantling of the old feudal order dominant to society (lord and peasant) into making the land privatized, leads to origins agrarian capitalism • Agrarian capitalism: peasants transformed into wage labourers, land lords transformed into agrarian capitalists, brings 2 changes: rise of population and agricultural demand Soil Mining, Through-Flow, and the Technological Treadmill • Marx: “progress in capitalist agriculture…[is] the art, not only of robbing the labourer, but also of robbing the soil” • Soil Mining: the systematic usage of soil nutrients faster than they are naturally replenished • Soil mining: idea that whereas previously agriculture would produce a crop on a certain piece of land and rotate through land to make sure soil/nutrients weren’t depleted over time, soil mining is to get as much agriculture as possible and move on to next land when needed to • The Rise of Monocropping and Vulnerability • Monocropping: whereas an agricultural might have produced a variety of crop, you produce one crop, can be tremendously productive but it increases your vulnerability, increases risk such as if a pest attacks your crop you lose everything • The Commodification of Animals and the Rise of Meat • Commodification of animals: animals had previously been used as a form of labour in agriculture but with the rise of machinery animals are transformed into sources of food instead of labour, commodities bought/sold in the market • From Closed Cycle and Through-Flow • Closed cycle agriculture: idea that agriculture would produce within the bounds of the local ecosystem that would allow it to produce naturally throughout the cycle • Through-flow was the idea of extracting as much as possible • The Technological Treadmill • Technological treadmill: energy comes from oil/fossil fuels, putting more energy into agriculture in the same place to produce the same production (environm
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