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Wilfrid Laurier University
Global Studies
Timothy Clark

Jonathan Ricci – B Clark Week 7, Lecture 1 – Global Ecology - February 26 , 2013th Anthropocene  Earth‟s ecological history altered by man  Changes mark beginning and end of geological errors Natural Limits - Hardin  You cannot have infinite growth on basis of limited resource  Human nature and the commons, a cautionary tale - Ehrlich  Neo-Malthusian thesis and the spectre of overpopulation  Food grows mathematically, population grows exponentially Anthropocentrism vs. Biocentrism  To what field of beings and things do we attach our ethical judgements?  How do we exclude “others” (both human and non-human) from our ethical consideration? Answers hardwired into: - Way we talk about or “construct” world - Way we place value on elements of our world - Way we conceive of “community”  Anthropocentrism = human-centred, worldview states we have moral or ethical obligation to other humans  Biocentrism - Environment something “out there” that we simply interact with as we seek the material basis (livelihood) upon which to build towards a biocentric worldview National Citizenship vs. Ecological Citizenship  Addressing joined-up problems in fragmented world  Constituting citizen rights and obligations: political allegiance or material relationships? Global Environmental Governance  International Environment Cooperation wishes to conquer environmental problems, but with little compromise o UN-Sponsored Summits: - 1972: UN Nations Conference on Human Environment, Stockholm - 1992: UN Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro - 2002: Rio +10, World Summit on Sustainable Development, Johannesburg International Environmental Institutions  UN Environmental Program (UNEP) Jonathan Ricci – B Clark - Facilitating environmental initiatives in UN system, global environmental monitoring, sponsoring negotiations  World Bank - Setting agendas around sustainable development  Global Environment Facility (GEF) - Grants for environmental… Non-State Players  Corporations - Shaping domestic political agendas (e.g. big oil and U.S. rejection of Kyoto Protocol under George Bush - Shaping global agenda (e.g. via UN Global Compact) - Private governance regimes (ISO (International Standards Organization 14 000); applies to business sustainability and management  NGOs - Similar to corporate actors, but (a) a sense of legitimacy associated with their lack of economic interests, and (b) more limited resources - Speak on environmental issues, primary concern, which give them certain level of sustainability - Results are limited due to narrow focus  Multi-Stakeholder or “Networked” Governance - Forest Stewardship Council and Marine Stewardship Council (e.g. WWF) Climate Change and Canada‟s Place in the Global Environment o Climate Governance: Epic Fail  From UNFCCC to Kyoto, from Bali to Copenhagen (summits and negotiations)  Human costs of cutting are much less than in U.S., they should essentially cut emissions on our behalf  Contradictions of Copenhagen: jets, limos, hot air usage  Issues: concrete targets, international monitoring, funding for adaption  “Canada‟s 2020 target is among the worst in the industrialized world.” – Ben Wikler Canada, Still Stomping…  Scott Vaughan (Canada‟s Environment Commissioner)  Federal government climate policy “disjointed, confused, non-transparent  We spend a lot, and don‟t have much to show for it  Canada pulled out of Kyoto Protocol in December 2011 to avoid fines  May 2012 report: not on track to meet Copenhagen commitment to reduce emissions  Canada‟s Bad Habit: reliance on oil sands for economic prosperity Jonathan Ricci – B Clark Harper Government‟s Oil Agenda  Lack of study of potential cumulative impacts of oil sands development  “Streamlining” federal environmental assessment process to insure “predictability” for investors  Replace the Navigable Waters Protection Act with Navigation Protection Act; only 62 rivers, 97 lakes fall under act Week 7, Lecture 2 – February 28 , 2013 The Globalization of the Environment: The Ill-Fated Escape of the Malthusian Trap Britain „Escapes‟ From The Trap  Began in 1800s  Population began to increase, as well as standard of living „Great Escape‟: Global Pop. and Per Capita Energy Consumption  New energy sources increased standards of living  Coal drove British Industrial Revolution and British rise  Discovery and usage of fossil fuels fostered escape Fossil Fuels and Globalization  Fossil Fuels - energy deposits from dead organisms Role of FF in Globalization  Global energy formerly pushed by biomass (e.g. burning wood)  „Chinese Miracle‟ – fuelled overwhelming by coal and oil  Chinese energy use per capita is small fraction of energy used by developed country  Chinese energy requirements are so enormous that it is conflict with countries that are independent with these resources Use of FF  Energy for electricity and transportation  Petrochemicals industry – 16% of petroleum used for petrochemicals  Myriad of products based in FF  Worldwide „addiction‟ to FF, essentially living on „Planet Oil‟ Natural Limits and Human Population - Ecological Crisis as Energy Crisis  Net primary production: rate at which all plants in an ecosystem produce net useful chemical energy; equal to difference between rate at which plants in an ecosystem produce useful chemical energy and rate at which they use some of that energy during respiration Jonathan Ricci – B Clark  Humans represent 0.5% of global biomass (living biological organisms) and yet estimates of human appropriation of terrestrial NPP range from 20-40%  Do humans have right to appropriate such a large amount of energy that all life depends upon? Manifestations of the Ecological Crisis - Species Extinction  In sixth great species extinction in planetary history  Caused by human activity  Worst mass extinction since 65 million years ago  Natural rate of extinction: 1-5 species per year  Estimated 30 000 species lost per year - Who cares?  Diversity and Productivity (Keystone species and net primary productivity)  Keystone species are essential to functioning of an entire ecosystem  Keystones often not determined until they are destroyed  More biologically diverse areas create more usable energy - Overfishing  80-85% of world‟s fisheries are fully or over-exploited  Large ocean fish now at 10% of pre-industrial levels  30% of global fisheries have collapsed entirely  If present fishing levels maintained, all of world‟s fisheries could collapse by 2050 (UN prediction)  Ethical issues surround whether or not global consumption is sustainable  Effects: food security (1 billion rely on fish protein); declining stocks cost US $50 billion/year; ecosystem collapse - Deforestation  Nearly half of world‟s forests are gone, just over 20% of original, old growth forests remain  Virgin forests are more biologically diverse, thus loss is more dire o Major Drivers  Cattle ranching, agriculture, infrastructure (roads), logging, other resource extraction o Why We Need Forests  Economic resources, biodiversity, carbon sequestration - Climate Change  Explosion of global carbon emission began in 1850  GHG emission at highest levels in over 500 000 years Jonathan Ricci – B Clark  Temperatures rising and expected to rise between 2 and 8 degrees Celsius  Impacts: extreme weather events (floods, droughts, fires), declining biodiversity and rising extinction rates; water stress and agricultural decline; rising sea levels and human displacement; spread of infectious diseases  Stern Review (British Costs Study): failure to act will reduce global GDP by 5% (US $4 trillion) and consumption by 20%; risks are existential - Solutions o Market-Based Solutions  Externalities: cost of production that is not transmitted through price system  Hardin and “Tragedy of the Commons”  Carbon Tax (Pigovian Tax) – tax on carbon emissions  Raises revenue for government investment  Problem 1: will production shift to countries without taxes?  Problem 2: how do you measure „cost‟ of carbon emissions?  Problem 3: will pubic support another tax? o Carbon Emissions Trading (Cap-and-Trade)  Set emissions limits and allow firms to buy and sell credits to produce carbon  Critique: up to 20% of emissions credits fraudulent  How to measure “Additionality” – if you wish to obtain carbon credit for emission reduction, you must prove that the reductions are new  EU Emissions Trading System (2005) – won‟t begin to reduce emissions levels until 2017  “Green Imperialism” – large companies get forests to reduce carbon, but displace people Week 8, Lecture 1 – March 5 , 2013 What are the solutions?  Externalities: cost of production that is not transmitted through price system  Market-Based Solutions  Carbon Emissions Trading (Cap-and-Trade)  Set emission limits and allow firms to buy and sell credits to produce carbon Critiques  Power and design: EU emissions trading system (2005) won‟t begin to reduce emissions levels until 2017  How to measure “Additionality” – central concept of carbon trading; for something to be considered for a carbon credit, it has to create new carbon reductions Jonathan Ricci – B Clark  Up to 20% of emissions credits are fraudulent (e.g. “clean coal” practices in India that were already a requirement by the government)  “Green Imperialism” Carbon Tax (Pigovian Tax)  Tax on carbon emissions Benefits:  Promote low-carbon economy and lifestyles  Raise revenue for investment Problems:  Will production shift to countries without taxes?  How to measure „cost‟ of carbon emissions  Will the public support another tax?  What role for technology? The Revenge of Malthus  Notion that there are natural limits to growth of human population and standards of living  Malthus argued that we cannot have both due to lack of ecological means, but he was found to be incorrect  Exponential growth on a finite planet (applies to population and economy)  Focus on quality of life, redistribution of wealth  Canada‟s average annual income is $40 000/person Ecological Footprints by Country  3.5 planets required for all humans to live as Canadians do Fossil Fuels and Energy  Neither NPP nor ecological footprint/biocapacity properly account for fossil fuel depletion  EF factors for land required to absorb emissions but not for the energy required to replace fossil fuels  Replacement of fossil fuels would require an increase in human appropriation of NPP of 50% World Scientists‟ Warning to Humanity (1992)  Noticing of emissions was becoming mainstream  Signed by 1700 scientists, including half of all Nobel Prize winners for natural sciences  We live in a way that is disconnected from the physical planet  Large cities seem to be the most efficient way to live Jonathan Ricci – B Clark The Globalization of Culture Steger  „Cultural‟: symbolic construction, articulation, and articulation, and dissemination  How we view our sense of self, self-worth  Meaning, identity, belonging: reciprocal functions of sharing and not- sharing cultural norms  How culture is constructed th Week 9, Lecture 1 – March 12 , 2013 What is the „globalization of culture‟?  Culture and globalization: “…refers to intensification and expansion of cultural flows across the globe” (Steger 71). How does culture “flow”? - Migration - Tourism - Education - Cuisine - Art - Media (television, film, internet) Thesis 1: Cultural Homogenization  Optimistic Hyperglobalizers: Fukuyama and the “End of History”  Two Drivers of Human History 1. Desire for well-being and technological means to satisfy - Technological advance necessarily adopted broadly and transforms economic organization towards capitalism - Capitalism became dominant; best provides for human 2. Desire for Recognition (Hegel) - Master-Slave dialectic - French Revolution: self-mastery of slaves (popular sovereignty) and rule and law/individual rights Fukuyama and the End of History  History as the “coherent and directional transformation of human societies”  Triumph of economic and political liberalism marks the end of history (of ideological conflict), because “we cannot picture to ourselves a world that is essentially different from the present one, and at the same time better.”  Not the end of conflict, but end of ideology  Sees no alternatives to democratic capitalism  Pessimistic Hyperglobalizers - Americanization/McDonaldization - American capital flows, embodied in transnational corporations (Coke, Disney, McDonald‟s, Nike, etc.) - Now known as cultural products Jonathan Ricci – B Clark Role of the Communications Industry  From competition to monopoly: - 2006 – 8 TNCs (Yahoo, Google, AOL/Time Warner, Microsoft, Viacom, General Electric, Disney, News Corp) controlled over 2/3 of revenues generated by communication industry - “The crucial cultural innovators of earlier decades – small, independent record labels, radio stations, movie theatres, newspapers, and book publishers – have become virtually extinct.” (Steger 79) - 3/4 women in the U.S. between 25 and 45 have eating disorder; annual cosmetic surgeries in the U.S. have risen from 7 million in 2000 to an estimated 55 million by 2015 and 90% of patients are female Thesis 2: Cultural Hybridization  Term from botany: crossing of two distantly related strains to produce a new plant with novel properties produced by genetic mixing  Roland Robertson: “Glocalization” – global symbols are taken and adapted by each local culture (e.g. McDonald‟s) Transforming Indigeneity  Korovkin: “…What is the fate of ethnic culture in an increasingly commodified rural Andean society?  Quechua culture in Otavalo has not been erased, but transformed - Culture as resource: tourism, artisan production, global trade, “authentic” ethnic weaving - Adaptation of community to global flows of goods, capital, people  What can we make of this phenomenon, where local cultural forms are “preserved” but mechanisms for expression are radically changed? Thesis 3: Glocommodification  How are we to conceive the relations between global commerce and local idioms?  Glocommodification: about how symbolic diversity of local often conceals and even supports structural homogenization  Two dimensions: - Structural-Institutional: homogenous cultural forces driven by process of commodification - Expressive-Symbolic: local expression and symbolic representation of global commodification  Mcdonaldization is not just about hamburgers, also about commodification and instrumentalization of food Legacy of Broken Treaties  Written treaties capture Crown understanding  Illiteracy and oral traditions  No laws for implementation and protection of treaty rights  Other departments and objectives trumped treaties Jonathan Ricci – B Clark  Loss of land and treaty rights (hunting, fishing, logging) From Treaties to the Indian Act (1876)  Define „status Indian‟ and native government and culture  Lost by marriage to non-status male or enfranchisement until 1960  „Indian agents‟, council power, benefit recipients  1895 amendment criminalized native ceremonies From Treaties to Segregation and Assimilation  Residential schools (1849-1996)  Funded and managed by government and churches  Compulsory for over 150 000 Native youth Native Peoples in Canada Today  Aboriginal families earn 70% of median Canadian family  Native suicide rate 4-5x national rat  Per capita funding gap for on-reserve schools: $2 500  Over 500 reserve schools lack adequate infrastructure and trained teachers  60% of reserve students will not finish High School  Native people less than 3% of population, 18% of prisoners  50% in prairie provinces Official Immigration Policy in Canada  Race, ethnicity, and immigration th  Prioritize British immigrants until late 20 century  1900 – 75% from Britain and U.S.  Nation of emigrants  Western settlement (Immigration Act of 1910)  Preferred, non-preferred, prohibited  Preferred: British, U.S., Western Europeans (German)  Non-Preferred: Asian, Black, Jew - Chinese Head Tax: $500 by 1903 - Quotas on Japanese and spousal restrictions - Health regulations for Black migrants from Caribbean (prone to promiscuity and single motherhood)  Non-preferred more likely to receive temporary entry to work in servile labour (e.g. railways) Week 9, Lecture 2 - March 14 , 2013 Official Immigration Policy in Canada  From race the to the „points system‟ (1967) - Age, education, skills, employment opportunities - Abolishes discrimination on basis of race or nationality - Jonathan Ricci – B Clark  Immigration Act of 1976 - Principles of Canadian Immigration - Non-discrimination, demographic, economic, cultural goals, family reunification, international commitments to refugees  Classes of immigrants: independent, family, humanitarian Rise and Fall of Official Multiculturalism  Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism (1963) - Ethic-group pressure  “Multiculturalism Within a Bilingual Framework” (1971) - Multiculturalism directorate (1972)  Canadian Multiculturalism Act (1988) - Multiculturalism is central to Canadian identity; freedom of cultural choice; government responsible for promoting multiculturalism and reducing racial/ethnic discrimination  Decline of Multiculturalism - Ministry of multiculturalism folded into citizenship then heritage Race, Class, and „Multiculturalism‟  Racial minorities account for 37% of all families in Toronto, 60% of families living in poverty  Between 1980 and 200, poverty rates for Caucasian families fell 28%, but rose for racial minorities by 361%  Racial minorities are 13% of Canadian population, but 3% of executives, 40% textile workers  Educated immigrants hindered from using skills for betterment of country  Study of youth with no criminal records in Toronto – 50% of Black youth searched in last 2 years, only 8% of White youth  Black Canadians represent 3.3% of Ontario‟s population, but 14% of prison population Bill C-31 and Refugees  Notion that Canada was being flooded with bogus refugees; faster entry into Canada  Ministerial Power to Determine “Safe” Countries - Shorter hearing times and no appeal rights  Ministerial authority to “designate” and detain “irregular” immigrants for up to 12 months - Usually children and families - Preventative method for human smuggling - Cannot apply for permanent residents or sponsor family members for 5 years Jonathan Ricci – B Clark  Ministerial discretion to determine that refugee claimants are no longer at risk, even if permanent residents - Essentially one can be sent back if homeland is deemed safe  Shortened timelines and limited appeals process - Concerns over fairness and documentation - People can be sent back over inadequate timeframe for proposal preparation and presentation Back to the Future?: The Temporary Foreign Workers Program  Non-immigrant employment authorization program (1973)  Method for dealing with labour gaps that stemmed from rapid growth in Canada  Visa tied to employment; permission required to change employer; prohibition on applying for status change within country… therefore not encouraged to stay  Initially focused on high-skill workers (professors and engineers) that were in shortage  By early 1990s, 70 000 TFW, 2/3 in high-skilled employment, with special programs for agricultural and live-in caregivers  Low-skill pilot project (2002), expanded to include over 200 jobs, from hotel clerks and beverage servers to gas station attendants and oil and gas workers  2007 – nearly 200 000 TFW entering country every year and Canada now receives more temporary than permanent immigrants Week 10, Lecture 1 – March 19 , 2013 Origins of the Global Human Rights Regime  WWII and Holocaust - European barbarism imploded in both World Wars  Charter of the UN (1945) - Article 1, Section 3: “Promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms”  Universal Declaration on Human Rights (1948) - Life, liberty, security of the person - Non-discrimination and freedom of thought, expression - Adequate standard of living, including food, clothing, housing, medical care, social services (e.g. education) What are „human rights‟?  The Cold War and the „Battle‟ Over Human Rights (1966)  International Covenant on Civil and Politic
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