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Globalization and The Challenge of Development.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Global Studies
Timothy Clark

Globalization and The Challenge of Development Crisis in The Congo  Congo is one of the most mineral rich countries in the world  Death toll is nearly surpassing the holocaust  Congo was given to King Leopold III as his personal property and he made over a billion dollars in wealth from enslaving the residents  The ongoing conflict has been mainly over the immense resources  Slavery (1885-1908), Colonialism, Independence (1950), Assassination (1951), Dictatorship (30 Years), War (1998-2002), 6 Million Dead (2002-Present) o All over the past 125 Years  Rape has been used as a war tactic to break women and communities  UN and US governments knew about the Rwanda attack on the Congo almost in real time  US supported Rwanda through the invasion  Obama passed a law allowing the secretary of state to withhold assistance if there was evidence that a country was attacking Congo and there was sufficient evidence of it. o Since this law was passed Rwanda has received over 1 billion in fundings Decolonization to Development  Occurred from 1947-1980  The process of withdrawing from colonies took so long because the powers didn’t want their colonies to be independent o Worries about countries turning to communism o Worried about the strength of countries in independence  Residual Colonialism still exists today  UN considers 16 territories with 2 million people to still be living under colonial rule The Cold War and Discovery of Development  4 Main Aspects of Development o Support the UN o Reconstruct Europe o Protect Allies Against Soviet Aggression o Developing the poor, underdeveloped countries  Important to US to avoid communism from the context of the cold war Competing Doctrines of Development  Modernization Theory (US/Britain) o Saving, Investment, and Industry o The idea that we wanted to build our western society into developing countries o This creates inequality and allows the rich to invest the resources into industry and begin the development of the country o Stages of Growth  Traditional Society  Subsistence Society  Preconditions for Takeoff  Commercial, Agricultural, and Extraction Industries  Needed to increase resources for Take-off phase  Take-off  Development of a manufacturing sector  Drive to Maturity  Development of a more broad industrial society  Mass Consumption  Use the idea of competitive advantage to increase the consumption possibilities o Kuznets Curve  You have to create inequality in the short term to create more equality in the long term  Latin American Structuralism (Raul Prebisch) o Primary Commodity Dependence/Terms of Trade o Developing countries are forced to sell their resources and buy back manufactured goods which doesn’t allow for their economies to grow o Countries in Latin America only export one or two goods, if the price goes down the entire economy goes down with it (Boom-Bust) o Also looks at the income effect where as people get richer the prices of basic goods that Latin America exports remains the same since people buy more manufactured goods o Import-Substitution Industrialization (ISI)  Ta
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