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Globalization and The Global Food Crisis.docx

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Global Studies
Timothy Clark

Globalization and The Global Food Crisis Origins of The Global Food System  The Temperate-Grain-Livestock Complex o Began in Britain from 1500-1800 because of 2 things  Enclosure Movement  Dismantling of the old feudal order that had dominated society (lord—peasants) until modernity  Lords decided to close off the peasants land and control access to the land  This required peasants to sell their labour instead of their food  Agrarian Capitalism  The privatization of land by lords to increase their intake and forcing the peasants to sell their labour o Rise of Population and Agricultural Demand  Population explosion in 1800s creating a massive demand for food  2 Responses  Imperialism o Exporting people to the Americas to work o Importing food from around the world  The Agricultural Revolution o Transformed agricultural production o Soil Mining  The systematic usage of soil nutrients faster than they are naturally replenished o Rise of Monocropping  This provides specialization of one crop  However it makes your vulnerability to external factors o Commodification of Animals  Animals became commodities that could be bought and sold  Used as food and not just livestock  Meat is the most inefficient form of protein to get Soil Mining, Through Flow, and The Technological Treadmill  Soil Mining refers to the usage of soil nutrients faster than they can be naturally reproduced o This is due to monocropping and the move away from strictly subsistence farming o To deal with the issues regarding soil mining and mono cropping the world use of pesticides and fertilizers have increased drastically over the last 50 years The Global Food System: Actors and Institutions  The Rise of Global Agribusiness o Controlled in 2 Main Ways  Upstream: Control over the inputs of agriculture (seeds, fertilizers, hormones)  Genetics and Seed Control: Soy and Maize seed revenues in the US are over 5 Billion
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