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Lecture 9

Global Studies Lecture 9.docx

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Department
Global Studies
Course
GS211
Professor
Alicia Sliwinski
Semester
Fall

Description
Global Studies Lecture 9: Feminism Outline  3 Waves of Feminism  A feminist critique of modern development theory  Women, development, theory o WID Women in Development o WAD Women and Development o GAD Gender and Development o WED Women, Environment and Development o Pad Postmodernism and Development 3 Waves of Feminism  Feminism is a diverse social theories, political movements, and philosophies  Gender Inequality observed in order to focus on gender politics, power relations and sexuality Themes related to development look at:  Inequality between genders  The disproportionate amount of work performed by women and yet: o Absence of women in development policy or group decision making- all of this being generally attributed to the subordination of women o In many societies where development programs are implemented subordination is dominant Gender= the socially acquired notions of masculinity and feminity by which women and men are identified Not to be confused with sex Gender Relations= the socially constructed form of relations between women and men How to development policies change the balance of power between women and men Gender Roles= the household tasks and types of employment socially assignment to women and men They are not fixed and globally consistent and indeed become more flexible with the changes brought about by economic development! 1st Wave of Feminism th  Feminist politics began as organized movement in the later part of the 19 century o Equal contact rights o Equal property rights o Opposition to ownership of married women by their husbands th  By end of 19 century, feminist activism concentrated on gaining political power  Not before 1918-1928 that women finally gained the right to vote in the UK and USA showing the gendered-biased nature of modern political democracy 2 ndWave of Feminism  1960’s to 1980’s  Expanded feminist critique to capitalism s biased, discriminatory and unfair  USA emerged from civil rights, and anti-Vietnam war movements  Women disillusioned with their 2 class status even the ‘privileged’ women felt discriminated against (students etc.) o May ’68 spirited of the 60’s but also question of what meaning of life is and the 2 wave of feminism critique relates ND  2 Wave of Feminism addressed questions like Antiracism and women of colour consciousness, postcolonial theory, ecofeminism, libertarian feminism, new feminist theory A lot of intlectual stimulation question structure, looking for change Betty Freidan, Feminine Mystique 1963 Observed women were compelled to find meaning in their lives chiefly through their husbands and children, inclining, them to lose their identity in that of their family National Organization for Women (NOW) 1966 BUT Differences emerged from black feminists, lesbian feminists, liberal feminists, and socialist feminists, with a woman called bell hooks (no caps on purpose). An African-American feminist intellectual, arguing that the movement lacked a minority voices and failed to address the issues that divide women *bell hooks is arguing that Betty Freidman is only a voice for one race, one group of women 3 Wave Feminism  1990’s influenced by post structuralism and post colonialism  Questions essentialist definition of feminity that assumes a universal female identity and overemphasized the experiences of upper middle class white women  Emphasizes fundamental ambiguity inherent in gendered binaries: o Man vs. women, strong vs. weak, productive vs. reproductive, public vs. private and so on  Prefer micro to macro-politics and include forms of gender expression and representation that are less explicitly political than their predecessors (how the local expression/representations that are occurring) *If you want to empower women talk to the different women, not the husbands or the men the different subgroups of women (ones with kids, one without, the elders, the teenager women etc.) Breaking down the stereotype of what a woman, and what a feminist is! Destructing the clear definition of these roles are, individuals therefore different for each  In 2 , and 3 waves of feminism focus on inequality, poverty, and gender relations produced a vibrant literature and critical ideas on development  NOW= feminist development theory forms a solid system of concepts, history, practices,
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