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Lecture 10

Global Studies Lecture 10.docx

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Global Studies
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Alicia Sliwinski

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Global Studies Week 10, Lecture 1 *Book Critical Review  Not simply description, part telling the reader about the book, then engaging one aspect more critically  Part 1, 2, 3 main critical review Introduction Early theories of development like Modernization and dependency: focus on growth Shift in thinking in 1970’s- 80’s: counter-proposals and critiques:  Questions around sustainability and environment  Post structural critiques of development  Feminism and development Post structural critiques  Rooted in critique of Modernity and rationality  Focus on development discourse **Post development critiques looks at discourse and unpacks the underlying functions Structuralism and Post structuralism: rapid overview 1960- Early 1980: critical development thinking dominated by Marxism and Neo-Marxism (dependency, world systems) coming from the Left  All historical events and social characteristic are a component of a general overarching system, be it a modes of production, world capitalist system, or global market  Systematic theories of social totalities  Explaining something meant putting it into the context of its more general system or structure; explainingWHY ! New stand of thinking is suspicious of this  Bases of political movements, so development seen as way of restructuring society **Structuralism is rigid; like human bones. Post structuralism is very critical of this. Table is explaining social phenomena Everything in structuralism has to ‘fit’ in the grand narratives Philosophies 18 century to 20 century Modernization: rational behaviour is motor of social progress  New belief in science and new secular morality= creation of powerful normative worldview where rational behaviour and application of scientific knowledge would lead to growth and happiness of all. Postmodern and post-structural philosophies try to reveal the inherent flaws in this mode of thinking that is so very ‘modern’, too confident Post structuralism Modern reason is a form of social control through:  Disciplinary institutions  Rationalized socialization  Rational self-discipline Reject Modern philosophy’s claims to universal truths  They attack the central tenets of modern progress: reason, truth, accuracy. Absolute truth is impossible for these thinkers. Relative semi-truths is impossible for these thinkers. Relative semi-truths are the best we can achieve, and for some thinkers, why bother?  Reason/rationality is a historical and regional form of biased thought- not a universal rationality Post-structuralism wants to “pull the curtain back” on the higher power- reveal where power operates will allow for change. Wizard of Oz example—literal pulling back of the curtain and discovering Oz is nothing but a normal man caused a change in thinking within society. Foucault: Power-Truth and Knowledge  Hugely influential French Thinker  Really influenced Escobar o Deeply critical of rationalism and whole modern project o Modern reason claims to speak for everyone else when it is rooted in European history, and image of European white male He is interested in how expert knowledge is formed- and he calls this a discourse. Believes values and emancipatory ideals of European Enlightenment and Modernity are ideological basis for creating a d
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