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GS101 Lecture Notes - Canadian Multiculturalism Act, Biculturalism, Canadian Identity

Global Studies
Course Code
Timothy Clark

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GS101 Week 9 Lecture 2
Globalization and Migration
"Treaty Peoples" and the origins of modern Canadian migration
From oral to written treaties
o Royal Proclamation of 1763
Formalize negotiations with Native population
Prevent "great frauds and abuses"
Recognition of self-government and Aboriginal title
Within confines of Imperial Expansionism: "The several
nations of tribes of Indians, with whom we are connected, and
who live under our protection, should not be molested or
disturbed in the possession of such parts of our dominions and
territories as, not having been ceded to, or purchased by us, are
reserved to them, or any of them, as by hunting grounds..."
The Legacy of Broken Treaties
Written treaties capture crown understanding
o illiteracy and oral traditions
often many oral agreements that weren't included in written treaties
No laws for implementation and protection of treaty rights
o Other departments and objectives trumped treaties
Loss of land and treaty rights (hunting, fishing, logging)
From treaties to the Indian Act (1876)
o Define "Status Indian" and native government and culture
Lost by marriage to non-status male or enfranchisement until 1960
had to give up legal status to vote
could not marry besides natives if they wanted to keep their
"Indian Agents", council power, benefit recipients
If you didn't meet standards of government you could lose your
status (Indian agents)
council power: had to give up legal status to vote
1895 amendment criminalized native ceremonies
made it illegal/punishable by prison
From treaties to segregation and assimilation
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Residential Schools (1849-1996)
o funded and managed by government and churches
o compulsory for over 150,000 Native youth
o banned from speaking native languages and engaging in cultural practices
o intense physical, psychological, and sexual abuse
Estimated 25% - 50% of students died
Native Peoples in Canada Today
Aboriginal families earn 70% of median Canadian family
Native suicide rate 4-5 times national rate
per capita funding gap for on-reserve schools: $2,500
o Over 500 reserve schools lack adequate infrastructure and trained teachers
o 60% of reserve students will not finish high school
Native people less than 3% of population but 18% of prisoners
o 50% in prairie provinces
Official Immigration Policy in Canada
Race, ethnicity, and immigration
o Prioritize British immigrants until late twentieth century
In 1900, 75% from Britain and United States
a nation of emigrants
o Western Settlement
Immigration Act of 1910: authorized prohibition of immigrants "...
belonging to any race deemed unsuited to the climate or requirements
of Canada"
wanted British immigrants
preferred, non-preferred, prohibited
o Preferred: British, U.S., Western Europeans (German)
o Non-Preferred: Asian, Black, Jew8
Chinese Head Tax: $500 by 1903
Quotas on Japanese and spousal restrictions
weren't allowed to bring spouses so they don't reproduce
Health regulations for black migrants from Caribbean
government considered black females prone to promiscuity and
single motherhood
Non-preferred more likely to receive temporary entry to work in
servile labour, i.e., railways
Official Immigration Policy in Canada
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