GS101 Lecture Notes - Nato, World Economic Forum, Lester B. Pearson

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19 Mar 2013
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Globalization and Human Rights
Glocalization = local culture is persisting in globalization forcing
Glocomoddification = local variants controlled by small number of transnational
corporations
Origins of the Global Human Rights Regime
World War 2 and the Holocaust
Charter of the United Nations (1945)
o Article 1, Section 3: promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and
fundamental freedoms
Universal Declaration on Human Rights (1948)
o More concrete form of Charter of the United Nations
o life, liberty, and security of the person
some rights contradicted each other
non-discrimination and freedom of thought and expression
adequate standard of living, including food, clothing, housing, medical
care, and social services
radical claim, however it is the basic driving mechanism of
capitalism
What are "Human Rights"?
Debate broke out about which of these were actually human rights
The Cold War and the "battle" over human rights (1966)
o International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)
international statement on human rights supported by U.S and western
capitalist countries
negative rights: life, security, non-discrimination, property, and religion
doesn't have freedom to, ex: have freedom to life but not
necessarily healthcare
promoted by capitalist west
o International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights (ICESC)
positive rights: labour, social security, food, water, clothing, housing,
education, and health care
freedom for labour: good working conditions, not a bad job
need food, water, clothing, housing for life
if working, have the right to these freedoms
o tension between negative and positive rights?
who's going to pay for these rights?
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tax payers
basic to liberal societies, communist countries attempt to get rid of
it by getting rid of some basic rights (ex: right to own property)
Three Generations of Human Rights
first generation life, property, equality before the law, conscience and expression,
political participation
second generation: material subsistence (food, clothing, shelter), education, healthcare,
labour rights
o people began to recognize they had interests with other people beyond their own
narrow interests and began to organize into parties to fight for their interests
o largely implemented in the developed world after the 2nd world war
third generation: clean air and water, cultural survival, substantive equality (affirmative
action)
o substantive equality = women standard of living, jobs they are in, money they
make
World Economic Forum: Gender Gap Rankings (2012)
Iceland 1st, Canada 21st
Canada's Persistent Gender Gap
women earn 64% of men ($30,100 to $47,000)
o 26.9% of women work part-time / 11.9% of men
o occupational segregation: 67% of women work in teaching, nursing and health
related fields
very little advance has been made in areas such as engineering and math
o occupational wage gaps: 71% manufacturing, 73% sales and service, 80%
management
making less than men do in same occupations
women comprise 48% of labour force but only 22% of senior
management, unchanged over past 2 decades
women make up majority of voters but only 20.8% of MPs (member of parliament)
women represent nearly 50% of lawyers under 50 years old, but only 30% of judges
(27% of appointments under Harper)
Focus on Canada: Peacemaker or Cold Warrior?
J.L. Granastein: "Canadians were middlemen, honest brokers, helpful fixers in a world
where these qualties were rare. peacekeeping made us different and somehow better."
o Rethinking Lester Pearson, Peacemaker
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Document Summary

Glocalization = local culture is persisting in globalization forcing. Glocomoddification = local variants controlled by small number of transnational corporations. Charter of the united nations (1945: article 1, section 3: promoting and encouraging respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. Universal declaration on human rights (1948: more concrete form of charter of the united nations life, liberty, and security of the person. Non-discrimination and freedom of thought and expression. Adequate standard of living, including food, clothing, housing, medical care, and social services radical claim, however it is the basic driving mechanism of capitalism. Debate broke out about which of these were actually human rights. The cold war and the battle over human rights (1966: international covenant on civil and political rights (iccpr) international statement on human rights supported by u. s and western capitalist countries. Negative rights: life, security, non-discrimination, property, and religion. Doesn"t have freedom to, ex: have freedom to life but not necessarily healthcare.

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