HI114 Lecture Notes - Executive Order 9835, Loyalty Program, David Caute
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McCARTHYISM  LOYALTY, HOLLYWOOD AND SPES
A) Truman’s Loyalty-Security Program
•executive order 9835 (March 25, 1947)
•Federal Employee’s Loyalty Program, to go into effect in October
•Not the first time:
•WW1 - 600 denied work in 1918
•WW2 100 lost government jobs + 30 resigned
•Truman’s loyalty program was much more extensive than previous loyalty program, the
most extensive in American history.
•This is during peace times.
•argued that this loyalty program did more than any other single government action to
instigate the second red scare
•new and existing employees
•you would be subject to a loyalty check, your past would be scrutinized, any
past employment, school, ANYTHING
•everyone is subject
•Loyalty board and a loyalty review board
•seems fair, you can bring a lawyer, you can attend the hearing, you can appeal
the decision. AT FACE VALUE SEEMS FAIR
•(encouraged people to come forward)
•you wouldn’t necessarily know what you were being accused of.
•anonymous accusers, general statement how can you defend yourself?
•WIDE STANDARDS FOR DISMISSAL (GUILT BY ASSOCIATION)
•Part V of EO9835: “reasonable grounds … disloyal to the Government of the
•sympathetic association - ANY association,
•PAST ASSOCIATIONS - even if you are no longer associated
•deliberately ruined peoples lives, it was unlikely that anyone “disloyal” could get
•POWER OF SECURITY OFFICERS - feared, had enormous power
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