Class Notes (1,000,000)
CA (620,000)
WLU (20,000)
HI (500)
HI330 (10)
Lecture 6

HI330 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Ring Shout, Cuisine Of The Southern United States, Fictive Kinship


Department
History
Course Code
HI330
Professor
Dana Weiner
Lecture
6

This preview shows pages 1-2. to view the full 8 pages of the document.
HI330 Lecture Slave Cultures and Families
February 5, 2013
-They were expected to work by their masters
-Work for the benefit of another person and not their own
Occupational Variety
-Regional variation
-Nature of their work varied substantially
-Northern slave live without any other slaves or possibly with 1 or 2 more
perhaps in the house of the slave holders and work in a small farm, small
industry, domestic, trade etc both skilled and unskilled labour
-
-Urban and rural
-Skilled and unskilled labour
-Philadelphia, 1767
-Variety of different jobs
-Might work with a merchant or shop keeper, artisan, be a sailor
-Change over time
-Industry
-Increasingly important role in industry in the north
-Ship building, rope, sail making
-Mining of coal, iron and worked in refineries to refine iron
-Chesapeake
-Iron industry offered relative privilege
-Would work 5 days a week instead of 6 or 7 and if you worked the
weekend you would be paid
Plantation Work Discipline
-Overseers
-Costs of excessive coercion
-Could result in their workers being sick, break tools or equipment and
sloppy work would eventually cost them money
-Some slaves would rebel
-Solutions
-Black drivers?
-Supervised other slaves
-Task system?
-Deep System to set work limits that gave slaves some free time
-Work-related discipline
-17th century petitioned the courts to discipline their unruly slaves via the
legal system
-18th century slaveholders assumed absolute sovereignty over their
plantation masters authority was rarely questioned and the law rarely got
involved
-African slaves had no court of last resort to defend them

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

-Accommodations
-Conflicting ideas about work
-Limits to the amount of work a slave could actually do
-Conflict between the infinite labour needs of masters and slaves had little
incentive to work patters of work that accommodated master and slave
-There was some degree of compromise that took place
-English masters and slaves had different expectations of the amount of work
that was capable of one person
-Whites were becoming increasingly aware of using their time the most
effectively (19th century) expected servants to work from dawn to dusk
with brief breaks only to eat
-West African work patters were communal and slow paced to make up for
the hot temperatures
-Masters found that slaves would work longer and harder in groups and if
they were allowed to sing songs
-Owners went to great lengths to get more work from their slaves
-Back and forth process
Growing Profits, Growing Stricter
-1775: ¼ million slaves
-Most lived in the South
-Increasing
-Profitability as number of slaves increased
-Becomes more and more important to the colonial and American
economy
-Masters bought more slaves and more land
-Harshness
-AA were largely confined to plantations and their punishments
became more harsh, more closely supervised, work was more and
more regimented over time
-Reduced their holidays to 3 Christmas, Easter and 1 other and
Saturdays and Sunday usually became work days for the tobacco
fields
-Most stretched the work day in to the evening and asked them to do
different types of work
-Worked picked up in the winter removing stumps from fields,
cleaning pastures and repairing buildings
-Chesapeake
-Patters and qualities of work?
-More than half of the population worked in the tobacco fields
-Washington 400+ slaves by of the time of the Revolution
-Prelude to Revolution
-Slaveholding founders
-Trying to build a framework that would allow their survival
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Origins of African American Cultures
-As the native born people of African descent and those with partial white ancestry
the origins of African American cultures became established and more cultured
-African languages
-Stopped speaking ancestral languages
-Ethnic identities
-Stopped referring to themselves as groups from Africa
-West African heritage
-Family structure, religious practices, modes of expression, musical style and
instruments, cooking styles and food, folk arts, etc
Religions
-Many masters initially refused baptism
-Initially if you were a Christian you couldn’t be enslaved
-African religions and Islam persisted in parts of America
-Kept a pre-modern focus on the natural and supernatural and the
living and the dead
-African religions
-Circle dances ring shout at funerals
-Funeral practices decorated with shells and pottery in the West African
manner
-Magic
-Herb doctors and root workers
-How did they practice their religions?
-Continued to shape their lives
-West African ideas remained relevant
-Looked to new immigrants for guidance
African America Impact on Colonial Cultures
-Slaves shaped white colonists’ lives
-New American music
-Preforming English ballads in a distinct African American style for white
audiences
-Celebrations
-Northern and Chesapeake slave had black election or coronation days
-Negro election day or crown virtual leaders
-Language
-Particularly the way Southern speak see AA/slave influence
-Spirituality
-Spiritual realm and remedies
-Gap between English folk lore and West African beliefs wasn’t that large
-Foods
-Slave cooks influence both white southern cooking and AA eating habits
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version