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January 15 2013.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Alicia Mc Kenzie

January 15, 2013 ML100-F The Roman Empire and its “fall”:  Fall of empire is oversimplified  Roman administrative influence (Diocese, “bishops and their cities”)  Diocese: Jurisdiction was a Roman administrative unit.  In the State, the Bishops step into the role as people who took care of city, like take care of courts, social services (physical well-being of cities)  Petrine Doctrine (Pentarchy and East/West divide)  Western church is focused on Roman churches, church of Peter, they believe peter means everything  A church found by apostle has special status (someone Jesus chose to spread the teachings of Christianity)  Petrine Doctrine: Romans believe this church (apostle ones) should be above the others  In Eastern, they believe some churches are patriarchal, so there are 5 churches in cities that are all equal (Rome, Jerusalem, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioquia (today Turkey))  Shows that East/West divide has been there for a while  Theodosius (380: established Christianity as official religion of the Empire)  Ambrose of Milan  Ambrose has status due to being in Roman council and is rival of Theodosius  Theodosius sent out soldiers to punish for the death of Authories and Butheric, but he sent out Gothic troops who by mistakenly killed 7000 civilians, this force Theodosius to promulgate the law  Columns were takth from Old Saint Peters and put into new church Bernini’s baldacchino 17 Century:  Made over the tomb of Saint Peter  Influenced art in the Renaissance Christian Culture under the Empire:  Church Fathers (Jerome: Vulgate, Augustine)  Jerome is the translator of Vulgate bible (first Latin translation), Vulgate is presented without punctuation  Augustine, the most important, converts from passive form of Christianity to Christianity,  Monasticism:  Begins with hermits, who go off in wilderness to live pure to get closely to God  Anthony started the idea of monks (bio written by author in Alexandria)  Stylites built a 60 ft pillar, and stayed on top of it for 30 years (to avoid heat in desserts)  They would scream profanity over the Pillars  Cult of Saints  First saints were Martyrs, they were killed because they were possessed by Christ, made them fearless (womens could not be Martyrs), women’s who were Martyrs had the Noble Virgin stories as they gave their body to God (like nuns)  Saint Lucy, ran away from emperor, emperor tried to bring her back but could not move her (due to God’s power), so they hacked her eyes out  Sedbastian, becomes outraged of what happens to Christians, so he tells off Diocletian, and Diocletian arrows him brutally, but he does not die, so he goes back to Diocletian and then he does get beaten up again but this time to death  Forty Martyrs of Sebastian, 40 martyrs refuse to give up Christianity,  Cult of Saints:  Substitute for polytheism?  Hagiography *  Genre of ‘saint’s lives’ (Vita), Saint’s biography, they are not historical sources  Relics:  Pieces or objects that have connection to the holy family or saints  Example is the true cross  First class: item associated with Christ, body part of saint  Second class: item a saint wore  Third class: any item touched to another relic  They are stored in reliquary  Cult of Saints: Seven young men who were refusing to sacrifice themselves and their Christian believes, and instead of dying they were put to sleep of 80 years during the great persecution  After someone discovered them, they come out and walked out in Theodosius’ reign  St. Nicholas of Myra  Was known as gift givers (Santa Claus)  Three daughters who did not have enough money to marry, so St. Nicholas put gold into their shoes when the daughters were sleeping  St. Nicholas attended a meeting in the council where he was outraged by Heretic, so he punched him, and was jailed, then when he came out of jailed he apologized, and was again accepted back into the community  Krampus  Eats children who are bad, or stuffs them in his bad (a companion of Santa Claus)  Th
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