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Lecture

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Department
History
Course
HI101
Professor
Alicia Mc Kenzie
Semester
Fall

Description
What to do with a broken empire: Rome under Diocletian and Constantine Rome before 500AD, why it fell, what this means (BUT why did Rome last as long as it did?) Thought they were trying to change Rome, not salvage it? Decisions achieve short-term success or long-term consequences? See these events through their eyes Problems wih rome: communication (large) six weeks to get message across empire in good circumstances, defense (large borders), Major rivers Danube, Rhine, Seine(seh-nay), Loire (low-are). (not tested but useful) • Bureaucrats expensive, hard to supervise **Civitas (see-vi-taws) – Municipality city + area around it Dependance on Civitas causedTension between urban and provincial leaders, THESE existed before rome!!! - How do we turn these into Roman cities????? - Army is expensive (food, water, weapons) Complex and abuse-prone taxation system -Tax in food as well as money -Army needs food -Tax evasion (Responsibility to municipal council on taxes) -if municipal taxes not collected they were responsible out of their pocket Tension to municipal cuz no one wanted this job Dominance of aristocracy in West -municipality must go to single person who owns twice as much land as a city ( no way to make pay) -they challenged the government with local power bases Too Many Frontiers -Britain build wall -Daine and rhine many enemies on other side -shaky control over tribesman in NorthAfrica -In the East Persia which was as powerful as central Rome and asAggressive Had to find powerful generals -people like them and proclaim them Emperor THE THIRD CENTURY CRISIS Pressure on Frontiers -persians obtaining land lost to Rome] Imperial Instability -Caesar Augustuscan enforce loyalty (first emperor) -next emperors not have this character -Nepotism bad policy son =/= father Military Emperors -can no longer hold positions because of powerful family -Commoners could hold powerful positions because they were good fighters -class tension (senators take commands from commeoner whowas good fighter) Debasement of Coinage and Inflation -adding in non-precious metals when economy suffers (inflation) [Vimar republic had inflation, supplementary reading] Political Fragmentation -Problem with Federal leader so turn to local leader for some problems Gallic Empire (this happened) -created by general (three others) Diocletian: Tradition and Innovation Emperor, and rose through ranks but had to be cautious. Emperor had to be in more than one place at a time Tetrarchy (four emperor system) -2 Augusti (senior emperors) each chose a Caesar -2 Caesars (junior emperors) -Idea not to distinguish between Tetrarchs Orderly abdication -look for competence, but also smooth transition Separation of Civil and MilitaryAuthority at provincial level -Creates a (civil?) bureaucracy -divides large areas into smaller ones Edict on Prices -Set highest possible price -caused hording and black market, not successful Reform of Coinage -Reintroduced bronze coins New ratio of value between gold, silver, bronze Ensured common level of preciocity of currency (certain amount of bronze/coin) Flaw…. -too optimistic -problem with Tertrarchy what if someone doesn’t want to step down? (crashes down, trust person picked) -nepotism once more when he steps down -Diocletian thought emperor had more power than he did sometimes SECOND GENERATION Sons elected, goes back to where it was Cival war everywhere -tetracrhy does not last through the next generation Constantine: Rome Transformed Son Of Petrarch, fled to getaway from civil war, interested in religion Victor in the civil wars (312 in west; 324 in east) Killed enemies after they surrendered, killed family when they opposed him (vicious, aggressive) Goes to East (Byzantium) levels city, creates Constantinople Shifted imperial court, shifted spiritual centre of Empire New concepts to Emperor (does not want to fight aristocrats) Creats art of himself Greek coins, Adopts Christianity -changes how you are looked at (chosen by God) State still costs a lot to run -large nonproductive populations of the city Half a million people in Constantinople, how were they fed? Preindustrial world? -
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