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c Nov 13 - Byzantium

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Alicia Mc Kenzie

Eastern Superpowers: The Ottonian Dynasty and Byzantium under the Macedonians Why can Otto’s Holy Roman Empire and the Byzantine empire under the Macedonians be considered superpowers? (they can be) How did they influence their neighbours? The Holy Roman Empire Origins Confederation of tribal duchies Saxony, Lotharingia, Thuringia, Franconia, Bavaria Devleoped new cultural identities of their own in order to come together to defend themselves, they needed a leader (but just for war) Henry the Fowler, duke of Saxony (d.936) - Simply a war leader - His son changes it into a theocratic monarchy (Otto the Great) Prince-bishops Empire that is disintegrating so you try to find the base of local power Otto the Great Important relationship with church Deliberately makes a connection with the church Father didn’t want to be crowned (have Church have power over him) Otto the Great sees Church as a source of power (give and receive) Lay investiture and ecclesiastica homage Lay investiture; bishops and abbots (in order to get position; he has veto rights) Now gets to pick his officials Bishops had to swear to the king as his vassal There were lots of lands tied to the church; ties it to state (smart move) Eigenkirchen ***** The proprieters rights over any structures on his land That person can appoint officials for Church in that area (lots of money) Advocates – The people that do the business of the church (clerics not supposed to do it) Often given the office of Count Allows Otto to control local gov;t as well [The church perhaps did not realize what it was getting itself into, causes later the investiture controversy] Much of his troops (2 thirds) came from Chruch lands Relied on Chruch Otto finds a way to make his position unassailable (successful for him) Magyars and the Empire Carpathian basin (800’s) They arrive their Conduct raids on churches Don’t take slaves so kill more than Vikings Apocalyptic Imagery - Depicted as horsemen of the apocalypse o If a horseman dies, then you sacrifice his horse o The white stallion was the perfect steed for them  Bible: I saw a pale horse and a pale writer and his name was death  Mostly written about by church, so demonized them Henry the Fowler - Casts this fight as a religious struggle - The Magyars turn there attention (st Gall, Heribald) St Gall and Heribald - Heribald did not leave because he had not been given his yearly allotment of leather o So he didn’t have shoes - They think Heribald is funny; don’t kill him, so keep him as a mascot o Monks come back and he is surprisingly okay Fights again in 933 but doesn’t finish of Magyars off completely Battle of Lechfeld (955) - Henry’s children unite against him and side with Magyars (bad choice, Germans hate Magyars) - Henry arrives and is extremely outnumbered by Magyars, but is a very good military leader o Says he is using holy and to troops, appeals to christian identity o He wins, his knights were effective o Cut off surviving enemies noses b4 sending them home - Father of his “Volk” o Called this^ and the Father of Christianity  Ruler of state and of christanity Otto I as Holy Roman Empire John XIII - Raped pilgrims, 18 at the time, not interested in position but hunting Coronation (962) - Betrayed Otto several times throwing loyalty back to Berengar of Italy - He was repeatedly deposed, excommunicated, and reinstated - But, claims title (protector of papacy as Charlagmangne did) Problems in Italy - Italian king in Italy already, but his wife has a claim to Italian throne - Eventually called overlord of Italy Rivalry with Byzantium (if went to war would have been medieval WWIII) [They went for diplomatic opti
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