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1 Nineteenth Century Legacy.docx

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Wilfrid Laurier University
Alicia Mc Kenzie

1 Jan 9 – The Nineteenth Century Legacy The ideological responses of Europeans to their problems - The liberation of individuals (from politics, divine right of kings, class identification) - The industrial revolution OVERVIEW 1. Impact of the twin 4. Socialism 7. Modernism revolutions 5. Nationalism 8. Irrationalism 2. Liberalism 6. Imperialism 3. Conservatism [Some believe Europeans (through cultural imperialism) they become victimized] American companies (such as coca-cola) become pervasive in European life THE IMPACT OFTHE TWIN REVOLUTIONS (1) Economic Transformation Europeans come from agrarian and small shops to large cities and factories Political and Social Transformation Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity Tense relations between ruled and rulers (e.g. bosses and workers) Urbanization Early 1800’s kicks off Massive increase in productivity Steam engine invented Burning coal and steam provided the power Countries with large reserves of iron and coal had an advantage Britain had a growing population (workers) 2 Significant reserves of iron and coal Economic power translates into military power Britain would have the largest navy as a result Needed to protect import of goods Britain Industrialized Imported large amounts of resources (cotton) Needed imported wheat to feed its citizens due to rapid industrialization First Urban Nation Conquest of Time and Space Rapid change from rural to urban industrial living Industrial development would happen in a similar manner across Europe Travel People would not leave a 5 mile radius their entire lives Railroads transported large amounts of textiles and produce Communications Telegraph cables under the ocean could send information very quickly th [Some argue the end of the 19 century say the first movement of globalization] The telegraph also created instability because it could be used militarily Orders communicated between enemies Germany feels insecure in the middle of Europe Largest economic and military power but has no defensible borders Creates military plans which contribute to WWI POLITICALAND SOCIALTRANSFORMATIONS Legacy of 1789 Limits placed on the ability of others to tell us what to do 3 Liberty Political liberation Limits on the abilities of kings (even authoritarian kings, such as German Kaiser) Parliamentary institutions even in autocratic Russia Voting Before 1914 half the pop’n can’t vote Property qualifications (certain income or you can’t vote) Everyone can vote, but people with wealth sometimes had more weight Equality Everyone is equal under the law LIBERALISM (2) John Stuart Mill, Emperor Frederik III Limited Government The state ensures no one kills another Ensures the security of the state overseas Stays out of the way (citizens economic interests to the best of their ability) No taxes Representative gov’t Parliamentarian are a control on the executive Control the money by controlling parliament [Bismarck defies the gov’t and takes the taxes against the will of the parliament to get upgrades for the military]
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