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HI109 (96)

3 The Great War

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Alicia Mc Kenzie

THE GREAT WAR The ideas of intellectuals (under barbarism in WWI) became palpable - Progress of humanity In question o Gas used Development of modern psychiatry - PTSD (shell-shocked) 1. Alliances and war plans 5. Cultural impact 2. The final crisis 6. Social impact 3. Mobilization for war 7. End of the war 4. New features of war ALLIANCESAND WAR PLANS The Schlieffen Plan - Germany needs to strike hard and fast because in the long run they do not have economic and military sustain necessary Insecurity in Europe, that being diplomatically isolated made you vulnerable The triple alliance - AH, Germany, Italy - In major European conflict, come to one another defense The Entente - France has great animosity towards Germany (Alsace + Lorraine) - Britain has no formal alliance with France o No specific obligation to Russia either o Britain has to make a commitment (1911/1910)  If a major conflict, British parliament makes agreement: can’t do anything - Wider British cabinet does not have any information of British obligation to help defend French frontier THE FINAL CRISIS Background - AH have occupied Bosnia, which is significally occupied by serbs o Want to be united with the Serbian state - Black Hand (1914) assassinateArchduke Franz Ferdinand (AH) o Contrary obligations collide Black Hand funded by Serbia Confrontation between Belgrade and Vienna - AH wants to destroy Belgrade o Send them a ridiculous offer, so that they are forced to war  If they can do it quick enough, Russia won’t intervene  They fail, Russia defends serbs + orthodox Christians - Alliances o Germans back upAH  Russians begin to mobilize militarily • Germans have to give French ultimatum - Germans say France must surrender certain defenses (else they will war with them) o Worded in a way that no country could accept it (intentionally)  Germany must mobilize to avoid two fronts - Practical reasons and private obligations mean GB must enter war o GB cannot see France weakened (for fear of Germany)  Germany has 2 largest navy, France is buffer  Germany appears set on conquest of Europe By early august 1914 AH, Germany VS Russia, Serbia, France, GB, Canada (?) - Italians (rome) stay out due to economic vulnerability - 1815 Italy switches againstAH Germany MOBILIZATION FOR WAR Popular enthusiasm - Lots of young people - Can go fight instead of living in factories (authentic, heroic human life) War by Timetable - Idea that war will be over quickly - Conquest of time and space (telegraph, telephone) o Armies in capital cities  armies across continent o Road and rail network allows great army movement - Increased stakes of war East front - Russians develop much faster o Warsaw, St. Petersburg and Moscow industrialized o Germans forced to remove some forces to defend against Russia Financial and Economic mobilization - Allies have huge advantage o London world’s financial capital (GB) o GB has over half the ships in world’s oceans  Cuts off German overseas possessions  Cuts of German underwater Cables (communication) o Nitrates (explosives), oil, palm oil, rubber cut off from Germany  GB knows a quick war results in loss of France; not good for GB  They plan for a long war By 1916 GB has fresh armies that is much larger (in millions) IN 1914 The war at sea - In North sea, GB wins instantly because it has a superior geographic channel o English channel and between Scotland and Norway blocked by GB  No shots need to be fired Germans had lost raw materials and war at s
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